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Author Vandewalle, G.; Maquet, P.; Dijk, D.-J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light as a modulator of cognitive brain function Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Trends in Cognitive Sciences Abbreviated Journal Trends Cogn Sci  
  Volume 13 Issue 10 Pages 429-438  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Brain/anatomy & histology/*physiology; Brain Mapping; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Diagnostic Imaging/methods; Humans; *Light; Melatonin/metabolism; Retina/anatomy & histology/physiology; Visual Pathways/anatomy & histology/physiology  
  Abstract Humans are a diurnal species usually exposed to light while engaged in cognitive tasks. Light not only guides performance on these tasks through vision but also exerts non-visual effects that are mediated in part by recently discovered retinal ganglion cells maximally sensitive to blue light. We review recent neuroimaging studies which demonstrate that the wavelength, duration and intensity of light exposure modulate brain responses to (non-visual) cognitive tasks. These responses to light are initially observed in alertness-related subcortical structures (hypothalamus, brainstem, thalamus) and limbic areas (amygdala and hippocampus), followed by modulations of activity in cortical areas, which can ultimately affect behaviour. Light emerges as an important modulator of brain function and cognition.  
  Address Cyclotron Research Centre, University of Liege, 8 Allee du 6 Aout, Batiment B30, B-4000 Liege, Belgium. gilles.vandewalle@umontreal.ca  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1364-6613 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) PMID:19748817 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 830  
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Author Hale, J.D.; Davies, G.; Fairbrass, A.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Rogers, C.D.F.; Sadler, J.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages e61460  
  Keywords *Cities; England; Environmental Pollution; Geographic Mapping; Humans; Light; *Lighting; Photography; Urban Population; *Urbanization  
  Abstract Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.  
  Address School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom. j.hale@bham.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) PMID:23671566; PMCID:PMC3646000 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 209  
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