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Author (down) Troy, J.R.; Holmes, N.D.; Green, M.C.
Title Modeling artificial light viewed by fledgling seabirds Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal Ecosphere
Volume 2 Issue 10 Pages art109
Keywords artificial light; fallout; Hydrobatidae; modeling; Newell's Shearwater; Procellariidae; Puffinus newelli; birds
Abstract Artificial light is increasing in coverage across the surface of our planet, impacting the behavioral ecology of many organisms. Attraction to sources of artificial light is a significant threat to certain fledgling shearwaters, petrels (Procellariidae), and storm-petrels (Hydrobatidae) on their first nocturnal flights to the sea. Disorientation by light can cause these birds to crash into vegetation or manmade structures, potentially resulting in death from physical injury, starvation, dehydration, predation by introduced predators, or collisions with vehicles. We developed a GIS-based method to model the intensity of artificial light that fledgling procellariids and hydrobatids could view en route to the ocean (to estimate the degree of threat that artificial light poses to these birds) and present two models for the island of Kauai as examples. These models are particularly relevant to the federally threatened Newell's Shearwater, or `A`o (Puffinus newelli), of which >30,000 fledglings have been collected in response to disorientation by lights on Kauai during the past 30 years. Our models suggest that there are few to no portions of Kauai from which young birds could fledge and not view light on their post-natal nocturnal flights, which is concerning given evidence of a Newell's Shearwater population decline. In future work using this technique, night light intensity layers could be altered to model the effects of modified coastal light conditions on known and potential procellariid and hydrobatid breeding locations. Furthermore, certain methods presented herein may be applicable to other seabirds and additional taxa in which attraction to anthropogenic light poses a serious threat, including migratory passerines and hatchling marine turtles. Components of this modeling approach could potentially be used to spatially estimate effects of other point-source threats to ecological systems, including sound and air pollution.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 60
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Author (down) Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Kocifaj, M.
Title Urban night-sky luminance due to different cloud types: A numerical experiment Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.
Volume 48 Issue 8 Pages 1017-1033
Keywords Skyglow; modeling; urban; clouds; radiative transfer
Abstract In this paper, we analyse theoretically and numerically the sky glow in urban and suburban areas, focusing on the zenith-normalised luminance of a cloudy sky. The results suggest that the altitude of a cloud imposes important changes in the luminance distribution. Peak values of sky luminance can be observed at a distance d = R + h tan (z), where R is the city radius, and h is the cloud altitude. Fluctuations of the zenith-normalised luminance over the city are dictated by three effects, specifically (i) extinction and backscatter in the undercloud atmosphere, (ii) the cloud properties and (iii) the radiant intensity function of the dominant ground-based light sources. For high clouds, the aerosol optical property is evident at moderate elevation angles. The light beams emitted from different parts of the city propagate along different inclined trajectories before they contribute to the elevated zenith luminance of low clouds. Then, multiple factors combine together to form the light field at the ground, city-size and city emission pattern being of specific importance.
Address Cátedras CONACYT, Instituto de investigaciones Dr José María Luis Mora, Programa Interdisciplinario de Estudios Metropolitanos (CentroMet), Plaza Valentín Gómez Farías #12 Col. San Juan Mixcoac, México D.F. C.P 03730. E-mail: lamphar(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-0938 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1225
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Author (down) Rea, M. S.; Bierman, A.
Title Spectral considerations for outdoor lighting: Consequences for sky glow Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.
Volume 47 Issue 8 Pages 920-930
Keywords Lighting; skyglow; spectrum; scattering; aerosol; modeling
Abstract It is well known that the magnitude of sky glow on a clear night depends upon the aerosol content in the atmosphere and the spectral power distribution (amount and spectrum). Sources with a greater proportion of short-wavelength radiation produce more backscattered radiation, but as aerosol density increases, the differential effect of spectrum becomes smaller. Sky glow magnitude also depends upon the operating characteristics of the detector and will be greater when the spectrum of the backscattered radiation is tuned to the spectral band-pass characteristics of the detector. The human visual system is most often used to assess sky glow magnitude, but its spectral response is not limited to a single, univariate detector. Rather, the retina is composed of many neural channels, each with its own spectral and absolute sensitivities to optical radiation. Since we can use a different neural channel to see an individual star than we do to gain an overall impression of sky brightness, changes to the spectral power distribution of backscattered radiation differentially, and simultaneously, affect one’s ability to see a single star and to assess sky brightness. A general method for assessing sky glow based upon aerosol content, spectral power distribution and the specific operating characteristics of a detector, human or otherwise, is offered.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Society of Light and Lighting Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1065
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Author (down) Rabaza, O.; Aznar-Dols, F.; Mercado-Vargas, M.; Espin-Estrella, A.
Title A new method of measuring and monitoring light pollution in the night sky Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 5-19
Keywords Instrumentation; all-sky; measurement; modeling; monitoring
Abstract This paper describes a method of measuring and monitoring light pollution in the night sky. This method is capable of instantly quantifying the levels of artificial radiance and monochromatic luminance of the sky glow by means of a system that includes an all-sky camera as well as several interference filters. The calibration is done with an integrating sphere where the measurement pattern used is obtained from the light reflected from the inner wall of the sphere which comes from radiation emitted by a calibration lamp with a known luminous flux. The inner wall of this sphere is a Lambertian surface, which ensures that the light reflected or falling on it is uniformly dispersed in all directions (i.e. the surface luminance is isotropic).
Address Ovidio Rabaza Castillo, E.T.S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, Campus de Fuentenueva, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain E-mail: ovidio(at)ugr.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1347
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Author (down) Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Barden, M.; Jones, A.M.; Szyszka, C.; Kimeswenger, S.; Vinther, J.
Title An atmospheric radiation model for Cerro Paranal: I. The optical spectral range* Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Astronomy & Astrophysics Abbreviated Journal A&A
Volume 543 Issue Pages A92
Keywords atmospheric effects; site testing; radiative transfer; radiation mechanisms: general; scattering; techniques; spectroscopic; modeling; observatories; Cerro Paranal
Abstract Aims. The Earth’s atmosphere affects ground-based astronomical observations. Scattering, absorption, and radiation processes deteriorate the signal-to-noise ratio of the data received. For scheduling astronomical observations it is, therefore, important to accurately estimate the wavelength-dependent effect of the Earth’s atmosphere on the observed flux.

Methods. In order to increase the accuracy of the exposure time calculator of the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal, an atmospheric model was developed as part of the Austrian ESO In-Kind contribution. It includes all relevant components, such as scattered moonlight, scattered starlight, zodiacal light, atmospheric thermal radiation and absorption, and non-thermal airglow emission. This paper focuses on atmospheric scattering processes that mostly affect the blue (<0.55&#8201;&#956;m) wavelength regime, and airglow emission lines and continuum that dominate the red (>0.55&#8201;&#956;m) wavelength regime. While the former is mainly investigated by means of radiative transfer models, the intensity and variability of the latter is studied with a sample of 1186 VLT FORS&#8201;1 spectra.

Results. For a set of parameters such as the object altitude angle, Moon-object angular distance, ecliptic latitude, bimonthly period, and solar radio flux, our model predicts atmospheric radiation and transmission at a requested resolution. A comparison of our model with the FORS&#8201;1 spectra and photometric data for the night-sky brightness from the literature, suggest a model accuracy of about 20%. This is a significant improvement with respect to existing predictive atmospheric models for astronomical exposure time calculators.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0004-6361 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 274
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