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Author Barentine, J.C.; Walker, C.E.; Kocifaj, M.; Kundracik, F.; Juan, A.; Kanemoto, J.; Monrad, C.K.
Title (down) Skyglow Changes Over Tucson, Arizona, Resulting From A Municipal LED Street Lighting Conversion Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
Volume 212 Issue Pages 10-23
Keywords Skyglow; Tucson; Arizona; LED; modeling; radiative transfer; LED
Abstract The transition from earlier lighting technologies to white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a significant change in the use of artificial light at night. LEDs emit considerably more short-wavelength light into the environment than earlier technologies on a per-lumen basis. Radiative transfer models predict increased skyglow over cities transitioning to LED unless the total lumen output of new lighting systems is reduced. The City of Tucson, Arizona (U.S.), recently converted its municipal street lighting system from a mixture of fully shielded high- and low-pressure sodium (HPS/LPS) luminaires to fully shielded 3000 K white LED luminaires. The lighting design intended to minimize increases to skyglow in order to protect the sites of nearby astronomical observatories without compromising public safety. This involved the migration of over 445 million fully shielded HPS/LPS lumens to roughly 142 million fully shielded 3000 K white LED lumens and an expected concomitant reduction in the amount of visual skyglow over Tucson. SkyGlow Simulator models predict skyglow decreases on the order of 10-20% depending on whether fully shielded or partly shielded lights are in use. We tested this prediction using visual night sky brightness estimates and luminance-calibrated, panchromatic all-sky imagery at 15 locations in and near the city. Data were obtained in 2014, before the LED conversion began, and in mid-2017 after approximately 95% of  ~18,000 luminaires was converted. Skyglow differed marginally, and in all cases with valid data changed by  <±20%. Over the same period, the city’s upward-directed optical radiance detected from Earth orbit decreased by approximately 7%. While these results are not conclusive, they suggest that LED conversions paired with dimming can reduce skyglow over cities.
Address International Dark-Sky Association, 3223 N 1st Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85719 USA; john(at)darksky.org
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1819
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Author Weishampel, Z.A.; Cheng, W.-H.; Weishampel, J.F.
Title (down) Sea turtle nesting patterns in Florida vis-à-vis satellite-derived measures of artificial lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Remote Sens Ecol Conserv
Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 59-72
Keywords Animals; sea turtles; Artificial light; DMSP; light pollution; marine turtles; nest surveys; simultaneous autoregressive modeling; Florida; United States; Loggerhead turtle; Caretta caretta; Leatherback turtle; Dermochelys coriacea; Green turtle; Chelonia mydas
Abstract Light pollution contributes to the degradation and reduction of habitat for wildlife. Nocturnally nesting and hatching sea turtle species are particularly sensitive to artificial light near nesting beaches. At local scales (0.01–0.1 km), artificial light has been experimentally shown to deter nesting females and disorient hatchlings. This study used satellite-based remote sensing to assess broad scale (~1–100s km) effects of artificial light on nesting patterns of loggerhead (Caretta caretta), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas) along the Florida coastline. Annual artificial nightlight data from 1992 to 2012 acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) were compared to an extensive nesting dataset for 368, ~1 km beach segments from this same 21-year period. Relationships between nest densities and artificial lighting were derived using simultaneous autoregressive models to adjust for the presence of spatial autocorrelation. Though coastal urbanization increased in Florida during this period, nearly two-thirds of the surveyed beaches exhibited decreasing light levels (N = 249); only a small fraction of the beaches showed significant increases (N = 52). Nest densities for all three sea turtle species were negatively influenced by artificial light at neighborhood scales (<100 km); however, only loggerhead and green turtle nest densities were influenced by artificial light levels at the individual beach scale (~1 km). Satellite monitoring shows promise for light management of extensive or remote areas. As the spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions of the satellite data are coarse, ground measurements are suggested to confirm that artificial light levels on beaches during the nesting season correspond to the annual nightlight measures.
Address Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 USA; John.Weishampel(at)ucf.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2056-3485 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1346
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Author Zeng, C.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, S.; Yan, F.; Zhao, Q.
Title (down) Population spatialization in China based on night-time imagery and land use data Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 32 Issue 24 Pages 9599-9620
Keywords DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; light at night; population; modeling
Abstract Population is a key indicator of socioeconomic development, urban planning and environmental protection, particularly for developing countries like China. But, census data for any given area are neither always available nor adequately reflect the internal differences of population. The authors tried to overcome this problem by spatializing the population across China through utilizing integer night-time imagery (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System, DMSP/OLS) and land-use data. In creating the population linear regression model, night-time light intensity and lit areas, under different types of land use, were employed as predictor variables, and census data as dependent variables. To improve model performance, eight zones were created using night-time imagery clustering and shortest path algorithm. The population model is observed to have a coefficient of determination (R 2) ranging from 0.80 to 0.95 in the research area, which remained the same in different years. A comparison of the results of this study with those of other researchers shows that the spatialized population density map, prepared on the basis of night-time imagery, reflects the population distribution character more explicitly and in greater detail.
Address State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science , Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University , Beijing, 100101, PR China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 228
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Author Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.; Elvidge, C.D.
Title (down) Naked-eye star visibility and limiting magnitude mapped from DMSP-OLS satellite data Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume 323 Issue 1 Pages 34-46
Keywords light at night; remote sensing; GTOPO30; DMSP; light pollution; modeling; mapping
Abstract We extend the method introduced by Cinzano et al. (2000a) to map the artificial sky brightness in large territories from DMSP satellite data, in order to map the naked eye star visibility and telescopic limiting magnitudes. For these purposes we take into account the altitude of each land area from GTOPO30 world elevation data, the natural sky brightness in the chosen sky direction, based on Garstang modelling, the eye capability with naked eye or a telescope, based on the Schaefer (1990) and Garstang (2000b) approach, and the stellar extinction in the visual photometric band. For near zenith sky directions we also take into account screening by terrain elevation. Maps of naked eye star visibility and telescopic limiting magnitudes are useful to quantify the capability of the population to perceive our Universe, to evaluate the future evolution, to make cross correlations with statistical parameters and to recognize areas where astronomical observations or popularisation can still acceptably be made. We present, as an application, maps of naked eye star visibility and total sky brightness in V band in Europe at the zenith with a resolution of approximately 1 km.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 175
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Author Kocifaj, M.
Title (down) Modelling the spectral behaviour of night skylight close to artificial light sources Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 403 Issue 4 Pages 2105-2110
Keywords scattering; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: numerical; Modeling
Abstract Spectral features of the night sky are simulated under cloudless conditions. Numerical runs show that spectral composition of the diffuse light changes over the whole sky and sky radiances quickly respond to altering aerosol characteristics, such as the asymmetry parameter, single scattering albedo and total optical thickness. The general trend is a steep decrease of diffuse irradiance with a distance from the city centre. Powerstar HQI-NDL lamps produce more light at short wavelengths, thus implying the higher levels of light pollution. The red light may markedly contribute to the obtrusive light if Vialox NAV-4Y lamps are considered as a prevailing source of light in the model town. In a non-turbid atmosphere, the minimum radiance is notoriously observed close to the zenith. As aerosol loading increases, the minimum radiance is shifted to larger zenith angles at the opposite side of the light source. Obtained results may serve as corrections to spectrophotometry data, as the light pollution can be easily calculated for any sky element and for any spectral band.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 276
Permanent link to this record