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Author Barentine, J.C.; Walker, C.E.; Kocifaj, M.; Kundracik, F.; Juan, A.; Kanemoto, J.; Monrad, C.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Skyglow Changes Over Tucson, Arizona, Resulting From A Municipal LED Street Lighting Conversion Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 212 Issue Pages 10-23  
  Keywords Skyglow; Tucson; Arizona; LED; modeling; radiative transfer; LED  
  Abstract The transition from earlier lighting technologies to white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a significant change in the use of artificial light at night. LEDs emit considerably more short-wavelength light into the environment than earlier technologies on a per-lumen basis. Radiative transfer models predict increased skyglow over cities transitioning to LED unless the total lumen output of new lighting systems is reduced. The City of Tucson, Arizona (U.S.), recently converted its municipal street lighting system from a mixture of fully shielded high- and low-pressure sodium (HPS/LPS) luminaires to fully shielded 3000 K white LED luminaires. The lighting design intended to minimize increases to skyglow in order to protect the sites of nearby astronomical observatories without compromising public safety. This involved the migration of over 445 million fully shielded HPS/LPS lumens to roughly 142 million fully shielded 3000 K white LED lumens and an expected concomitant reduction in the amount of visual skyglow over Tucson. SkyGlow Simulator models predict skyglow decreases on the order of 10-20% depending on whether fully shielded or partly shielded lights are in use. We tested this prediction using visual night sky brightness estimates and luminance-calibrated, panchromatic all-sky imagery at 15 locations in and near the city. Data were obtained in 2014, before the LED conversion began, and in mid-2017 after approximately 95% of  ~18,000 luminaires was converted. Skyglow differed marginally, and in all cases with valid data changed by  <±20%. Over the same period, the city’s upward-directed optical radiance detected from Earth orbit decreased by approximately 7%. While these results are not conclusive, they suggest that LED conversions paired with dimming can reduce skyglow over cities.  
  Address International Dark-Sky Association, 3223 N 1st Ave, Tucson, AZ, 85719 USA; john(at)darksky.org  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1819  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Skyglow: a retrieval of the approximate radiant intensity function of ground-based light sources Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society  
  Volume 439 Issue 4 Pages 3405-3413  
  Keywords radiative transfer; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: observational; site testing; skyglow; modeling  
  Abstract The angular distribution of the light emitted from a city is an important source of information about public lighting systems and it also plays a key role in modelling the skyglow. Usually, the upwardly directed radiation is characterized through a parametrized emission function – a semi-empirical approach as a reasonable approximation that allows for fast computations. However, theoretical or experimental retrievals of emission characteristics are extremely difficult to obtain because of both the complexity of radiative transfer methods and/or the lack of highly specialized measuring devices.

Our research has been conducted with the specific objective to identify an efficient theoretical technique for retrieval of the emission pattern of ground-based light sources in order to determine the optimum values of the scaling parameters of the Garstang function. In particular, the input data involve the zenith luminance or radiance with horizontal illuminance or irradiance. Theoretical ratios of zenith luminance LV(0) to horizontal illuminance DV are calculated for a set of distances d that separate a hypothetical observer from the light source (a city or town). This approach is advantageous because inexpensive traditional equipment can be used to obtain the mean values of the Garstang parameters. Furthermore, it can also be applied to other parametrizable emission functions and to any measuring site, even one with a masked horizon.
 
  Address Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, 842 48 Bratislava, Slovak Republic  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 326  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rea, M. S.; Bierman, A. url  openurl
  Title (up) Spectral considerations for outdoor lighting: Consequences for sky glow Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.  
  Volume 47 Issue 8 Pages 920-930  
  Keywords Lighting; skyglow; spectrum; scattering; aerosol; modeling  
  Abstract It is well known that the magnitude of sky glow on a clear night depends upon the aerosol content in the atmosphere and the spectral power distribution (amount and spectrum). Sources with a greater proportion of short-wavelength radiation produce more backscattered radiation, but as aerosol density increases, the differential effect of spectrum becomes smaller. Sky glow magnitude also depends upon the operating characteristics of the detector and will be greater when the spectrum of the backscattered radiation is tuned to the spectral band-pass characteristics of the detector. The human visual system is most often used to assess sky glow magnitude, but its spectral response is not limited to a single, univariate detector. Rather, the retina is composed of many neural channels, each with its own spectral and absolute sensitivities to optical radiation. Since we can use a different neural channel to see an individual star than we do to gain an overall impression of sky brightness, changes to the spectral power distribution of backscattered radiation differentially, and simultaneously, affect one’s ability to see a single star and to assess sky brightness. A general method for assessing sky glow based upon aerosol content, spectral power distribution and the specific operating characteristics of a detector, human or otherwise, is offered.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher The Society of Light and Lighting Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1065  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Estrada-García, R.; Garcí­a-Gil, M.; Acosta, L.; Bará, S.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J. url  openurl
  Title (up) Statistical modelling and satellite monitoring of upward light from public lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.  
  Volume Issue 1477153515583181 Pages 1-30  
  Keywords Remote sensing; radiative transfer; modeling; skyglow; light pollution; urban  
  Abstract In this work, we propose an approach to estimating the amount of light wasted by being sent towards the upper hemisphere from urban areas. This is a source of light pollution. The approach is based on a predictive model that provides the fraction of light directed skywards in terms of a small set of identified explanatory variables that characterise the urban landscape and its light sources. The model, built via the statistical analysis of a wide sample of basic urban scenarios to compute accurately the amount of light wasted at each of them, establishes an optimal linear regression function that relates the fraction of wasted flux to relevant variables like the kind of luminaires, the street fill factor, the street width, the building and luminaire heights and the walls and pavement reflectances. We applied this model to evaluate the changes in emissions produced at two urban nuclei in the Deltebre municipality of Catalonia. The results agree reasonably well with those deduced from the radiance measurements made with the VIIRS instrument onboard the Suomi-NPP Earth orbiting satellite.  
  Address Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (ETSEIB), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain; manuel.garcia.gil(at)upc.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Sage Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1155  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zamorano, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Ocaña, F.; Pila-Diez, B.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.; Gallego, J.; Fernandez, A.; Nievas, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Testing sky brightness models against radial dependency: a dense two dimensional survey around the city of Madrid, Spain Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal JQSRT  
  Volume 181 Issue Pages 52-66  
  Keywords Skyglow; measurements; light pollution; artificial light at night; modeling; Madrid; Spain  
  Abstract We present a study of the night sky brightness around the extended metropolitan area of Madrid using Sky Quality Meter (SQM) photometers. The map is the first to cover the spatial distribution of the sky brightness in the center of the Iberian peninsula. These surveys are neccessary to test the light pollution models that predict night sky brightness as a function of the location and brightness of the sources of light pollution and the scattering of light in the atmosphere. We describe the data-retrieval methodology, which includes an automated procedure to measure from a moving vehicle in order to speed up the data collection, providing a denser and wider survey than previous works with similar time frames. We compare the night sky brightness map to the nocturnal radiance measured from space by the DMSP satellite. We find that i) a single source model is not enough to explain the radial evolution of the night sky brightness, despite the predominance of Madrid in size and population, and ii) that the orography of the region should be taken into account when deriving geo-specific models from general first-principles models. We show the tight relationship between these two luminance measures. This finding sets up an alternative roadmap to extended studies over the globe that will not require the local deployment of photometers or trained personnel.  
  Address Dept. Astrof´&#305;sica y CC. de la Atm´osfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1323  
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