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Author Pun, C.S.J.; So, C.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong: a city-wide light pollution assessment Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication (up) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Abbreviated Journal Environ Monit Assess  
  Volume 184 Issue 4 Pages 2537-2557  
  Keywords *Cities; Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation/*methods; *Environmental Pollution; Hong Kong; Humans; *Light  
  Abstract Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.  
  Address Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, PR China. jcspun@hku.hk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0167-6369 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21713499 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 258  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Chalkias, C.; Petrakis, M.; Psiloglou, B.; Lianou, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Modelling of light pollution in suburban areas using remotely sensed imagery and GIS Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication (up) Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage  
  Volume 79 Issue 1 Pages 57-63  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Air Pollutants/*analysis; Cities; Environmental Monitoring/*methods; *Geographic Information Systems; Greece; Humans; *Light; Models, Theoretical; *Suburban Health  
  Abstract This paper describes a methodology for modelling light pollution using geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology. The proposed approach attempts to address the issue of environmental assessment in sensitive suburban areas. The modern way of life in developing countries is conductive to environmental degradation in urban and suburban areas. One specific parameter for this degradation is light pollution due to intense artificial night lighting. This paper aims to assess this parameter for the Athens metropolitan area, using modern analytical and data capturing technologies. For this purpose, night-time satellite images and analogue maps have been used in order to create the spatial database of the GIS for the study area. Using GIS advanced analytical functionality, visibility analysis was implemented. The outputs for this analysis are a series of maps reflecting direct and indirect light pollution around the city of Athens. Direct light pollution corresponds to optical contact with artificial night light sources, while indirect light pollution corresponds to optical contact with the sky glow above the city. Additionally, the assessment of light pollution in different periods allows for dynamic evaluation of the phenomenon. The case study demonstrates high levels of light pollution in Athens suburban areas and its increase over the last decade.  
  Address Department of Geography, Harokopio University, El. Venizelou Str., Kalithea, 17671 Athens, Greece. xalkias@hua.gr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16171928 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 729  
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Author Jung, K.; Kalko, E.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Where forest meets urbanization: foraging plasticity of aerial insectivorous bats in an anthropogenically altered environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication (up) Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal J. Mammal.  
  Volume 91 Issue 1 Pages 144-153  
  Keywords animals; flying mammals; acoustic monitoring; anthropogenic influence; artificial light; bat activity; Chiroptera; habitat plasticity; moon  
  Abstract Given worldwide rapid human population growth resulting in degradation or loss of habitats, it is important to understand how anthropogenic factors affect species presence and activity, and consequently, how well species tolerate or adapt to anthropogenically altered environments. This study, conducted in Panama, focuses on aerial insectivorous bats, a highly mobile and ecologically important, but largely understudied group. Acoustic monitoring was used to investigate habitat use in a tropical forest-town interface and microhabitat use around streetlights differing in wavelength (type of light) and accessibility (distance to vegetation). Plasticity in microhabitat use also was examined in relation to season and moonlight. We recorded a total of 25 aerial insectivorous bat species in the study area and found a subset of 20 species in town of which 18 frequently foraged around streetlights. Bat activity (passes/min) was lowest at the forest site, highest at streetlights, and intermediate in the dark areas of town. General bat activity at streetlights was concentrated at bluish-white lights compared to yellow-white and orange lights. However, bats revealed species-specific microhabitats with regard to light type, distance to vegetation, and relative light intensity. Season and moon phase affected microhabitat use around streetlights leading to microhabitat plasticity of individual species. Thus, in the forest-town interface most, but not all, aerial insectivorous bats were present in town and regularly foraged around streetlights, suggesting a species-specific tolerance for habitat alteration. Bats foraging at streetlights used microhabitats, and some species even changed microhabitats, according to season or moon phase. This indicates species-specific requirements for microhabitats and the importance of preserving habitat heterogeneity.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1593  
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Author Spoelstra, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title New device for monitoring the colors of the night Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication (up) Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 139 Issue Pages 82-89  
  Keywords Light pollution; Night sky spectrum; Filters; Monitoring  
  Abstract The introduction of LED lighting in the outdoor environment may increase the amount of blue light in the night sky color spectrum. This can cause more light pollution due to Rayleigh scattering of the shorter wavelengths. Blue light may also have an impact on circadian rhythm of humans due to the suppression of melatonin. At present no long-term data sets of the color spectrum of the night sky are available. In order to facilitate the monitoring of levels and variations in the night sky spectrum, a low cost multi-filter instrument has been developed. Design considerations are described as well as the choice of suitable filters, which are critical – especially in the green wavelength band from 500 to 600 nm. Filters from the optical industry were chosen for this band because available astronomical filters exclude some or all of the low and high-pressure sodium lines from lamps, which are important in light pollution research. Correction factors are calculated to correct for the detector response and filter transmissions. Results at a suburban monitoring station showed that the light levels between 500 and 600 nm are dominant during clear and cloudy skies. The relative contribution of blue light increases with a clear moonless night sky. The change in color spectrum of the night sky under moonlit skies is more complex and is still under study.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 185  
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Author Rabaza, O.; Aznar-Dols, F.; Mercado-Vargas, M.; Espin-Estrella, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A new method of measuring and monitoring light pollution in the night sky Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication (up) Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 5-19  
  Keywords Instrumentation; all-sky; measurement; modeling; monitoring  
  Abstract This paper describes a method of measuring and monitoring light pollution in the night sky. This method is capable of instantly quantifying the levels of artificial radiance and monochromatic luminance of the sky glow by means of a system that includes an all-sky camera as well as several interference filters. The calibration is done with an integrating sphere where the measurement pattern used is obtained from the light reflected from the inner wall of the sphere which comes from radiation emitted by a calibration lamp with a known luminous flux. The inner wall of this sphere is a Lambertian surface, which ensures that the light reflected or falling on it is uniformly dispersed in all directions (i.e. the surface luminance is isotropic).  
  Address Ovidio Rabaza Castillo, E.T.S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, Campus de Fuentenueva, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain E-mail: ovidio(at)ugr.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1347  
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