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Author Park, Y.-M.M.; White, A.J.; Jackson, C.L.; Weinberg, C.R.; Sandler, D.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Association of Exposure to Artificial Light at Night While Sleeping With Risk of Obesity in Women Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication JAMA Internal Medicine Abbreviated Journal JAMA Intern Med  
  Volume 179 Issue 8 Pages 1061-1071  
  Keywords Human Health; Obesity; Sleep  
  Abstract Importance: Short sleep has been associated with obesity, but to date the association between exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) while sleeping and obesity is unknown. Objective: To determine whether ALAN exposure while sleeping is associated with the prevalence and risk of obesity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This baseline and prospective analysis included women aged 35 to 74 years enrolled in the Sister Study in all 50 US states and Puerto Rico from July 2003 through March 2009. Follow-up was completed on August 14, 2015. A total of 43722 women with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease who were not shift workers, daytime sleepers, or pregnant at baseline were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from September 1, 2017, through December 31, 2018. Exposures: Artificial light at night while sleeping reported at enrollment, categorized as no light, small nightlight in the room, light outside the room, and light or television in the room. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalent obesity at baseline was based on measured general obesity (body mass index [BMI] >/=30.0) and central obesity (waist circumference [WC] >/=88 cm, waist-to-hip ratio [WHR] >/=0.85, or waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]>/=0.5). To evaluate incident overweight and obesity, self-reported BMI at enrollment was compared with self-reported BMI at follow-up (mean [SD] follow-up, 5.7 [1.0] years). Generalized log-linear models with robust error variance were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs for prevalent and incident obesity. Results: Among the population of 43 722 women (mean [SD] age, 55.4 [8.9] years), having any ALAN exposure while sleeping was positively associated with a higher prevalence of obesity at baseline, as measured using BMI (PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.03), WC (PR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09-1.16), WHR (PR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.08), and WHtR (PR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09), after adjusting for confounding factors, with P < .001 for trend for each measure. Having any ALAN exposure while sleeping was also associated with incident obesity (RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.34). Compared with no ALAN, sleeping with a television or a light on in the room was associated with gaining 5 kg or more (RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.08-1.27; P < .001 for trend), a BMI increase of 10% or more (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.26; P = .04 for trend), incident overweight (RR, 1.22; 95% CI,1.06-1.40; P = .03 for trend), and incident obesity (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.57; P < .001 for trend). Results were supported by sensitivity analyses and additional multivariable analyses including potential mediators such as sleep duration and quality, diet, and physical activity. Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that exposure to ALAN while sleeping may be a risk factor for weight gain and development of overweight or obesity. Further prospective and interventional studies could help elucidate this association and clarify whether lowering exposure to ALAN while sleeping can promote obesity prevention.  
  Address Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2168-6106 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31180469 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2525  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Abay, K.A.; Amare, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night light intensity and women's body weight: Evidence from Nigeria Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Economics and Human Biology Abbreviated Journal Econ Hum Biol  
  Volume 31 Issue Pages 238-248  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health; Adolescent; Adult; Body Mass Index; *Body Weight; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Lighting/*statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; Nigeria/epidemiology; Obesity/epidemiology; Overweight/*epidemiology; Prevalence; *Urbanization; Young Adult; *Bmi; *Nigeria; *Night light; *Obesity; *Overweight; *Urbanization  
  Abstract The prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing in many African countries and hence becoming regional public health challenges. We employ satellite-based night light intensity data as a proxy for urbanization to investigate the relationship between urbanization and women's body weight. We use two rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey data from Nigeria. We employ both nonparametric and parametric estimation approaches that exploit both the cross-sectional and longitudinal variations in night light intensities. Our empirical analysis reveals nonlinear relationships between night light intensity and women's body weight measures. Doubling the sample's average level of night light intensity is associated with up to a ten percentage point increase in the probability of overweight. However, despite the generally positive relationship between night light intensity and women's body weight, the strength of the relationship varies across the assorted stages of night light intensity. Early stages of night light intensity are not significantly associated with women's body weight, while higher stages of nightlight intensities are associated with higher rates of overweight and obesity. Given that night lights are strong predictors of urbanization and related economic activities, our results hint at nonlinear relationships between various stages of urbanization and women's body weight.  
  Address International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), USA. Electronic address: M.Amare@cgiar.org  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1570-677X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30312904 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2714  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Koo, Y.S.; Song, J.-Y.; Joo, E.-Y.; Lee, H.-J.; Lee, E.; Lee, S.-K.; Jung, K.-Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Outdoor artificial light at night, obesity, and sleep health: Cross-sectional analysis in the KoGES study Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 33 Issue 3 Pages 301-314  
  Keywords Human Health; Obesity  
  Abstract Obesity is a common disorder with many complications. Although chronodisruption plays a role in obesity, few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between artificial light at night (ALAN) and obesity. Since sleep health is related to both obesity and ALAN, we investigated the association between outdoor ALAN and obesity after adjusting for sleep health. We also investigated the association between outdoor ALAN and sleep health. This cross-sectional survey included 8526 adults, 39-70 years of age, who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Outdoor ALAN data were obtained from satellite images provided by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. We obtained individual data regarding outdoor ALAN; body mass index; depression; and sleep health including sleep duration, mid-sleep time, and insomnia; and other demographic data including age, sex, educational level, type of residential building, monthly household income, alcohol consumption, smoking status and consumption of caffeine or alcohol before sleep. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between outdoor ALAN and obesity. The prevalence of obesity differed significantly according to sex (women 47% versus men 39%, p < 0.001) and outdoor ALAN (high 55% versus low 40%, p < 0.001). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between high outdoor ALAN and obesity (odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.35, p < 0.001). Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that high outdoor ALAN was significantly associated with obesity after adjusting for age and sex (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.14-1.37, p < 0.001) and even after controlling for various other confounding factors including age, sex, educational level, type of residential building, monthly household income, alcohol consumption, smoking, consumption of caffeine or alcohol before sleep, delayed sleep pattern, short sleep duration and habitual snoring (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.36, p = 0.003). The findings of our study provide epidemiological evidence that outdoor ALAN is significantly related to obesity.  
  Address e Department of Neurology , Seoul National University College of Medicine , Seoul , South Korea  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26950542 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1370  
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Author Oike, H.; Sakurai, M.; Ippoushi, K.; Kobori, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Time-fixed feeding prevents obesity induced by chronic advances of light/dark cycles in mouse models of jet-lag/shift work Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Abbreviated Journal Biochem Biophys Res Commun  
  Volume 465 Issue 3 Pages 556-561  
  Keywords Animals; *Circadian Clocks; *Disease Models, Animal; *Feeding Behavior; Jet Lag Syndrome/*physiopathology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Obesity/etiology/*physiopathology/*prevention & control; Photoperiod; Circadian rhythm; Clock genes; Jet lag; Metabolic disorders; Obesity; Shift work  
  Abstract Recent findings have uncovered intimate relationships between circadian clocks and energy metabolism. Epidemiological studies have shown that the frequency of obesity and metabolic disorders increases among shift-workers. Here we found that a chronic shift in light/dark (LD) cycles comprising an advance of six hours twice weekly, induced obesity in mice. Under such conditions that imitate jet lag/shift work, body weight and glucose intolerance increased, more fat accumulated in white adipose tissues and the expression profiles of metabolic genes changed in the liver compared with normal LD conditions. Mice fed at a fixed 12 h under the LD shift notably did not develop symptoms of obesity despite isocaloric intake. These results suggest that jet lag/shift work induces obesity as a result of fluctuating feeding times and it can be prevented by fixing meal times. This rodent model of obesity might serve as a useful tool for understanding why shift work induces metabolic disorders.  
  Address Food Function Division, National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan; oike(at)affrc.go.jp  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-291X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:26297949 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1318  
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Author Kooijman, S.; van den Berg, R.; Ramkisoensing, A.; Boon, M.R.; Kuipers, E.N.; Loef, M.; Zonneveld, T.C.M.; Lucassen, E.A.; Sips, H.C.M.; Chatzispyrou, I.A.; Houtkooper, R.H.; Meijer, J.H.; Coomans, C.P.; Biermasz, N.R.; Rensen, P.C.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Prolonged daily light exposure increases body fat mass through attenuation of brown adipose tissue activity Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 112 Issue 21 Pages 6748–6753  
  Keywords Animals; brown adipose tissue; circadian rhythms; light pollution; obesity; triglyceride metabolism  
  Abstract Disruption of circadian rhythmicity is associated with obesity and related disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Specifically, prolonged artificial light exposure associates with obesity in humans, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that increasing the daily hours of light exposure increases body adiposity through attenuation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, a major contributor of energy expenditure. Mice exposed to a prolonged day length of 16- and 24-h light, compared with regular 12-h light, showed increased adiposity without affecting food intake or locomotor activity. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that prolonged day length decreases sympathetic input into BAT and reduces beta3-adrenergic intracellular signaling. Concomitantly, prolonging day length decreased the uptake of fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, as well as of glucose from plasma selectively by BAT. We conclude that impaired BAT activity is an important mediator in the association between disturbed circadian rhythm and adiposity, and anticipate that activation of BAT may overcome the adverse metabolic consequences of disturbed circadian rhythmicity.  
  Address Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, and  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25964318 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1172  
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Author McFadden, E.; Jones, M.E.; Schoemaker, M.J.; Ashworth, A.; Swerdlow, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Relationship Between Obesity and Exposure to Light at Night: Cross-Sectional Analyses of Over 100,000 Women in the Breakthrough Generations Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication American Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Epidemiol  
  Volume 180 Issue 3 Pages 245-250  
  Keywords body mass index; circadian rhythm; light at night; obesity; sleep; sleeping habits  
  Abstract There has been a worldwide epidemic of obesity in recent decades. In animal studies, there is convincing evidence that light exposure causes weight gain, even when calorie intake and physical activity are held constant. Disruption of sleep and circadian rhythms by exposure to light at night (LAN) might be one mechanism contributing to the rise in obesity, but it has not been well-investigated in humans. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the association between exposure to LAN and obesity in questionnaire data from over 100,000 women in the Breakthrough Generations Study, a cohort study of women aged 16 years or older who were living in the United Kingdom and recruited during 2003-2012. The odds of obesity, measured using body mass index, waist:hip ratio, waist:height ratio, and waist circumference, increased with increasing levels of LAN exposure (P < 0.001), even after adjustment for potential confounders such as sleep duration, alcohol intake, physical activity, and current smoking. We found a significant association between LAN exposure and obesity which was not explained by potential confounders we could measure. While the possibility of residual confounding cannot be excluded, the pattern is intriguing, accords with the results of animal experiments, and warrants further investigation.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0002-9262 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24875371 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 166  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fonken, L.K.; Aubrecht, T.G.; Melendez-Fernandez, O.H.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 28 Issue 4 Pages 262-271  
  Keywords Animals; Blood Glucose/metabolism; Body Weight/*physiology; CLOCK Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Corticosterone/metabolism; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Immunohistochemistry; Light; *Lighting; Male; Mice; Motor Activity; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/metabolism/physiology; clock genes; feeding rhythm; light pollution; obesity  
  Abstract With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience and Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. fonken.1@osu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23929553; PMCID:PMC4033305 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 28  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fonken, L.K.; Lieberman, R.A.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night exaggerates weight gain and inflammation associated with a high-fat diet in male mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Endocrinology  
  Volume 154 Issue 10 Pages 3817-3825  
  Keywords Adipose Tissue, White/*immunology/metabolism/pathology; Animals; Antigens, CD11b/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Appetite Regulation/*radiation effects; Arcuate Nucleus/*immunology/metabolism/pathology; Behavior, Animal/radiation effects; Circadian Rhythm; Cytokines/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Diet, High-Fat/*adverse effects; Feeding Behavior/radiation effects; Gene Expression Regulation; Glucose Intolerance/etiology/immunology/metabolism/pathology; I-kappa B Kinase/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Insulin Resistance; Lighting/*adverse effects; Male; Mice; Microglia/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Nerve Tissue Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Obesity/*etiology/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Random Allocation; *Weight Gain  
  Abstract Elevated nighttime light exposure is associated with symptoms of metabolic syndrome. In industrialized societies, high-fat diet (HFD) and exposure to light at night (LAN) often cooccur and may contribute to the increasing obesity epidemic. Thus, we hypothesized that dim LAN (dLAN) would provoke additional and sustained body mass gain in mice on a HFD. Male mice were housed in either a standard light/dark cycle or dLAN and fed either chow or HFD. Exposure to dLAN and HFD increase weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance, and alter insulin secretion as compared with light/dark cycle and chow, respectively. The effects of dLAN and HFD appear additive, because mice exposed to dLAN that were fed HFD display the greatest increases in body mass. Exposure to both dLAN and HFD also change the timing of food intake and increase TNFalpha and MAC1 gene expression in white adipose tissue after 4 experimental weeks. Changes in MAC1 gene expression occur more rapidly due to HFD as compared with dLAN; after 5 days of experimental conditions, mice fed HFD already increase MAC1 gene expression in white adipose tissue. HFD also elevates microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and hypothalamic TNFalpha, IL-6, and Ikbkb gene expression. Microglia activation is increased by dLAN, but only among chow-fed mice and dLAN does not affect inflammatory gene expression. These results suggest that dLAN exaggerates weight gain and peripheral inflammation associated with HFD.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, 636 Biomedical Research Tower, 460 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210. fonken.1@osu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0013-7227 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23861373 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 93  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Owens, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Obesity: heavy sleepers Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 497 Issue 7450 Pages S8-9  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Body Mass Index; CLOCK Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Energy Metabolism/*physiology; Ghrelin/metabolism; Humans; Insulin Resistance/physiology; Leptin/metabolism; Male; Mice; Obesity/*physiopathology; Satiety Response/physiology; Sleep/*physiology; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/physiology; Time Factors; Weight Gain/physiology; Weight Loss/physiology  
  Abstract  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23698508 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 503  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Eisenstein, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Chronobiology: stepping out of time Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 497 Issue 7450 Pages S10-2  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Benzofurans/therapeutic use; CLOCK Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Circadian Rhythm/genetics/*physiology; Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use; Efficiency/physiology; Humans; Melatonin/agonists/metabolism; Obesity/metabolism; Sleep/genetics/*physiology; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/metabolism  
  Abstract  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23698500 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 500  
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