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Author Meng, Y.; He, Z.; Yin, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantitative calculation of human melatonin suppression induced by inappropriate light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing Abbreviated Journal Med Biol Eng Comput  
  Volume 49 Issue 9 Pages 1083-1088  
  Keywords Algorithms; Circadian Rhythm/physiology/*radiation effects; Humans; *Lighting; Melatonin/*secretion; *Models, Biological; Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells/physiology/radiation effects; Retinal Ganglion Cells/physiology/radiation effects; Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells/physiology/radiation effects  
  Abstract Melatonin (C(1)(3)H(1)(6)N(2)O(2)) has a wide range of functions in the body. When is inappropriately exposed to light at night, human circadian rhythm will be interfered and then melatonin secretion will become abnormal. For nearly three decades great progresses have been achieved in analytic action spectra and melatonin suppression by various light conditions. However, so far few articles focused on the quantitative calculation of melatonin suppression induced by light. In this article, an algorithm is established, in which all the contributions of rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells are considered. Calculation results accords with the experimental data in references very well, which indicate the validity of this algorithm. This algorithm can also interpret the rule of melatonin suppression varying with light correlated color temperature very well.  
  Address Photonics Research Center, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0140-0118 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21717231 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 236  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Niklaus, S.; Albertini, S.; Schnitzer, T.K.; Denk, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Challenging a Myth and Misconception: Red-Light Vision in Rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Animals : an Open Access Journal From MDPI Abbreviated Journal Animals (Basel)  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages  
  Keywords animals; cones; electroretinogram; husbandry; photoreceptors; rat; red light; retina; rods  
  Abstract Due to the lack of L-cones in the rodent retina, it is generally assumed that red light is invisible to rodents. Thus, red lights and red filter foils are widely used in rodent husbandry and experimentation allowing researchers to observe animals in an environment that is thought to appear dark to the animals. To better understand red-light vision in rodents, we assessed retinal sensitivity of pigmented and albino rats to far-red light by electroretinogram. We examined the sensitivity to red light not only on the light- but also dark-adapted retina, as red observation lights in husbandry are used during the dark phase of the light cycle. Intriguingly, both rods and cones of pigmented as well as albino rats show a retinal response to red light, with a high sensitivity of the dark-adapted retina and large electroretinogram responses in the mesopic range. Our results challenge the misconception of rodents being red-light blind. Researchers and housing facilities should rethink the use of red observation lights at night.  
  Address Pharma Research and Early Development (pRED), Pharmaceutical Sciences (PS), Roche Innovation Center Basel, 4070 Basel, Switzerland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32138167 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2844  
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Author Seymoure, B. M., Linares, C., & White, J. doi  openurl
  Title Connecting spectral radiometry of anthropogenic light sources to the visual ecology of organisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 308 Issue 2 Pages 93-110  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; color space; ecological consequences; just noticeable difference; light pollution; photoreceptors; radiance; visual models; visual systems  
  Abstract Humans have drastically altered nocturnal environments with electric lighting. Animals depend on natural night light conditions and are now being inundated with artificial lighting. There are numerous artificial light sources that differ in spectral composition that should affect the perception of these light sources and due to differences in animal visual systems, the differences in color perception of these anthropogenic light sources should vary significantly. The ecological and evolutionary ramifications of these perceptual differences of light sources remain understudied. Here, we quantify the radiance of nine different street lights comprised of four different light sources: Metal Halide, Mercury Vapor, Light Emitting Diodes, and High‐Pressure Sodium and model how five animal visual systems will be stimulated by these light sources. We calculated the number of photons that photoreceptors in different visual systems would detect. We selected five visual systems: avian UV/VIS, avian V/VIS, human, wolf and hawk moth. We included non‐visual photoreceptors of vertebrates known for controlling circadian rhythms and other physiological traits. The nine light types stimulated visual systems and the photoreceptors within the visual systems differently. Furthermore, we modelled the chromatic contrast (Just Noticeable Differences [JNDs]) and color space overlap for each light type comparison for each visual system to see if organisms would perceive the lights as different colors. The JNDs of most light type comparisons were very high, indicating most visual systems would detect all light types as different colors, however mammalian visual systems would perceive many lights as the same color. We discuss the importance of understanding not only the brightness of artificial light types, but also the spectral composition of light types, as most organisms have different visual systems from humans. Thus, for researchers to understand how artificial light sources affect the visual environment of specific organisms and thus mitigate the effects, spectral information is crucial.  
  Address Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA; brett.seymoure(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher ZSL Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2306  
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