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Author Seymoure, B. M., Linares, C., & White, J.
Title (up) Connecting spectral radiometry of anthropogenic light sources to the visual ecology of organisms Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 308 Issue 2 Pages 93-110
Keywords Animals; Ecology; color space; ecological consequences; just noticeable difference; light pollution; photoreceptors; radiance; visual models; visual systems
Abstract Humans have drastically altered nocturnal environments with electric lighting. Animals depend on natural night light conditions and are now being inundated with artificial lighting. There are numerous artificial light sources that differ in spectral composition that should affect the perception of these light sources and due to differences in animal visual systems, the differences in color perception of these anthropogenic light sources should vary significantly. The ecological and evolutionary ramifications of these perceptual differences of light sources remain understudied. Here, we quantify the radiance of nine different street lights comprised of four different light sources: Metal Halide, Mercury Vapor, Light Emitting Diodes, and High‐Pressure Sodium and model how five animal visual systems will be stimulated by these light sources. We calculated the number of photons that photoreceptors in different visual systems would detect. We selected five visual systems: avian UV/VIS, avian V/VIS, human, wolf and hawk moth. We included non‐visual photoreceptors of vertebrates known for controlling circadian rhythms and other physiological traits. The nine light types stimulated visual systems and the photoreceptors within the visual systems differently. Furthermore, we modelled the chromatic contrast (Just Noticeable Differences [JNDs]) and color space overlap for each light type comparison for each visual system to see if organisms would perceive the lights as different colors. The JNDs of most light type comparisons were very high, indicating most visual systems would detect all light types as different colors, however mammalian visual systems would perceive many lights as the same color. We discuss the importance of understanding not only the brightness of artificial light types, but also the spectral composition of light types, as most organisms have different visual systems from humans. Thus, for researchers to understand how artificial light sources affect the visual environment of specific organisms and thus mitigate the effects, spectral information is crucial.
Address Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA; brett.seymoure(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ZSL Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2306
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Author Johansen, N.S.; Vänninen, I.; Pinto, D.M.; Nissinen, A.I.; Shipp, L.
Title (up) In the light of new greenhouse technologies: 2. Direct effects of artificial lighting on arthropods and integrated pest management in greenhouse crops Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Annals of Applied Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 159 Issue 1 Pages 1-27
Keywords Behaviour; biology; insects; light intensity; mites; photobiology; photoperiod; photoreceptors; plant protection; visual ecology; wavelength distribution
Abstract Novel lighting technology offers the possibility of improved arthropod integrated pest management (IPM) in artificially lighted crops. This review compiles the current knowledge on how greenhouse pest and beneficial arthropods are directly affected by light, with the focus on whiteflies. The effect of ultraviolet depletion on orientation and colour-coded phototaxis are to some extent studied and utilised for control of the flying adult stage of some pest species, but far less is known about the visual ecology of commercially used biological control agents and pollinators, and about how light affects arthropod biology in different life stages. Four approaches for utilisation of artificial light in IPM of whiteflies are suggested: (a) use of attractive visual stimuli incorporated into traps for monitoring and direct control, (b) use of visual stimuli that disrupt the host-detection process, (c) radiation with harmful or inhibitory wavelengths to kill or suppress pest populations and (d) use of time cues to manipulate daily rhythms and photoperiodic responses. Knowledge gaps are identified to design a road map for research on IPM in crops lighted with high-pressure sodium lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photoselective films. LEDs are concluded to offer possibilities for behavioural manipulation of arthropods, but the extent of such possibilities depends in practice on which wavelength combinations are determined to be optimal for plant production. Furthermore, the direct effects of artificial lighting on IPM must be studied in the context of plant-mediated effects of artificial light on arthropods, as both types of manipulations are possible, particularly with LEDs.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-4746 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 112
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Author Hoglund, J.; Mitkus, M.; Olsson, P.; Lind, O.; Drews, A.; Bloch, N.I.; Kelber, A.; Strandh, M.
Title (up) Owls lack UV-sensitive cone opsin and red oil droplets, but see UV light at night: retinal transcriptomes and ocular media transmittance Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Vision Research Abbreviated Journal Vision Res
Volume 158 Issue Pages 109-119
Keywords Animals; Vision; Birds; owls; Short-eared Owl; tawny owl; boreal owl; Long-eared Owl; Asio otus; Asio flammeus; Strix aluco; Aegolius funereus; cones; Photoreceptors
Abstract Most diurnal birds have cone-dominated retinae and tetrachromatic colour vision based on ultra-violet/violet-sensitive UV/V cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1), S cones expressing short wavelength-sensitive opsin 2 (SWS2), M cones expressing medium wavelength-sensitive opsin (RH2) and L cones expressing long wavelength-sensitive opsin (LWS). Double cones (D) express LWS but do not contribute to colour vision. Each cone is equipped with an oil droplet, transparent in UV/V cones, but pigmented by carotenoids: galloxanthin in S, zeaxanthin in M, astaxanthin in L and a mixture in D cones. Owls (Strigiformes) are crepuscular or nocturnal birds with rod-dominated retinae and optical adaptations for high sensitivity. For eight species, the absence of functional SWS1 opsin has recently been documented, functional RH2 opsin was absent in three of these. Here we confirm the absence of SWS1 transcripts for the Long-eared owl (Asio otus) and demonstrate its absence for the Short-eared owl (Asio flammeus), Tawny owl (Strix aluco) and Boreal owl (Aegolius funereus). All four species had transcripts of RH2, albeit with low expression. All four species express all enzymes needed to produce galloxanthin, but lack CYP2J19 expression required to produce astaxanthin from dietary precursors. We also present ocular media transmittance of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and Short-eared owl and predict spectral sensitivities of all photoreceptors of the Tawny owl. We conclude that owls, despite lacking UV/V cones, can detect UV light. This increases the sensitivity of their rod vision allowing them, for instance, to see UV-reflecting feathers as brighter signals at night.
Address Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0042-6989 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:30825468 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2245
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Author Dominoni, D.
Title (up) The effects of light pollution on biological rhythms of birds: an integrated, mechanistic perspective Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Ornithology Abbreviated Journal J. of Ornith.
Volume 156 Issue 1 Pages 409-418
Keywords Animals; Birds; Light pollution; Circadian rhythms; Annual rhythms; Chronodisruption; Melatonin; Deep brain photoreceptors; ipRGCs
Abstract Light pollution is considered a threat for biodiversity given the extent to which it can affect a vast number of behavioral and physiological processes in several species. This comes as no surprise as light is a fundamental, environmental cue through which organisms time their daily and seasonal activities, and alterations in the light environment have been found to affect profoundly the synchronization of the circadian clock, the endogenous mechanism that tracks and predicts variation in the external light/dark cycles. In this context, birds have been one of the most studied animal taxa, but our understanding of the effects of light pollution on the biological rhythms of avian species is mostly limited to behavioral responses. In order to understand which proximate mechanisms may be affected by artificial lights, we need an integrated perspective that focuses on light as a physiological signal, and especially on how photic information is perceived, decoded, and transmitted through the whole body. The aim of this review is to summarize the effects of light pollution on physiological and biochemical mechanisms that underlie changes in birds’ behavior, highlighting the current gaps in our knowledge and proposing future research avenues.
Address Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK; davide.dominoni@glasgow.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1167
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Author Cao, D.; Barrionuevo, P.A.
Title (up) The importance of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells and implications for lighting design Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Solid State Lighting Abbreviated Journal J Sol State Light
Volume 2 Issue 1 Pages 10
Keywords Human Health; lighting; Melanopsin; ipRGC; Photoreceptors; Circadian; Visual perception; Color Contrast; Sensitivity; LED; Lighting Design
Abstract We reviewed the role of melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in light-dependent functions, including circadian rhythm that is important for health and visual perception. We then discussed the implications for lighting design.
Address Visual Perception Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago; dcao98(at)uic.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2196-1107 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1325
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