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Author (up) Addison, D.; Stewart, B. openurl 
  Title Nighttime Lights Revisited: The Use of Nighttime Lights Data as a Proxy for Economic Variables Type Report
  Year 2015 Publication World Bank Group Policy Research Working Papers Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Economics; earth observation; satellite imagery; DMSP-OLS; NPP-VIIRS; gross domestic product; electric power consumption; capital; population; linear regression; night-time light data; economic monitoring  
  Abstract The growing availability of free or inexpensive satellite imagery has inspired many researchers to investigate the use of earth observation data for monitoring economic activity around the world. One of the most popular earth observation data sets is the so-called nighttime lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Researchers have found positive correlations between nighttime lights and several economic variables. These correlations are based on data measured in levels, with a cross-section of observations within a single time period across countries or other geographic units. The findings suggest that nighttime lights could be used as a proxy for some economic variables, especially in areas or times where data are weak or unavailable. Yet, logic suggests that nighttime lights cannot serve as a good proxy for monitoring the within-in country growth rates all of these variables. Examples examined this paper include constant price gross domestic product, nonagricultural gross domestic product, manufacturing value

added, and capital stocks, as well as electricity consumption, total population, and urban population. The study finds that the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program data are quite noisy and therefore the resulting growth elasticities of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime lights with respect to most of these socioeconomic variables are low, unstable over time, and generate little explanatory power. The one exception for which Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime lights could serve as a proxy is electricity consumption, measured in 10-year intervals. It is hoped that improved data from the recently launched Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite will help expand or improve these outcomes. Testing this should be an important next step.
 
  Address DAddison(at)worldbank.org  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher World Bank Group Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1363  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J.; Ferrari, M.J.; Grais, R.F.; Djibo, A.; Grenfell, B.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Explaining seasonal fluctuations of measles in Niger using nighttime lights imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 334 Issue 6061 Pages 1424-1427  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health; Cities; Emigration and Immigration; Epidemics; *Epidemiologic Methods; Humans; Light; Measles/*epidemiology/transmission; Niger/epidemiology; *Population Density; Remote Sensing Technology; *Seasons; Spacecraft  
  Abstract Measles epidemics in West Africa cause a significant proportion of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality. Epidemics are strongly seasonal, but the drivers of these fluctuations are poorly understood, which limits the predictability of outbreaks and the dynamic response to immunization. We show that measles seasonality can be explained by spatiotemporal changes in population density, which we measure by quantifying anthropogenic light from satellite imagery. We find that measles transmission and population density are highly correlated for three cities in Niger. With dynamic epidemic models, we demonstrate that measures of population density are essential for predicting epidemic progression at the city level and improving intervention strategies. In addition to epidemiological applications, the ability to measure fine-scale changes in population density has implications for public health, crisis management, and economic development.  
  Address Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. nbharti@princeton.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22158822; PMCID:PMC3891598 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2770  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Gaston, K.J.; Bennie, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Demographic effects of artificial nighttime lighting on animal populations Type Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Environmental Reviews Abbreviated Journal Environ. Rev.  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 323-330  
  Keywords diurnal; lighting; night; nocturnal; light pollution; light at night; Photoperiodism; demography; demographics; population dynamics  
  Abstract Artificial lighting, especially but not exclusively through street lights, has transformed the nighttime environment in much of the world. Impacts have been identified across multiple levels of biological organization and process. The influences, however, on population dynamics, particularly through the combined effects on the key demographic rates (immigration, births, deaths, emigration) that determine where individual species occur and in what numbers, have not previously been well characterized. The majority of attention explicitly on demographic parameters to date has been placed on the attraction of organisms to lights, and thus effectively local immigration, the large numbers of individuals that can be involved, and then to some extent the mortality that can often result. Some of the most important influences of nighttime lighting, however, are likely more subtle and less immediately apparent to the human observer. Particularly significant are effects of nighttime lighting on demography that act through (i) circadian clocks and photoperiodism and thence on birth rates; (ii) time partitioning and thence on death rates; and (iii) immigration/emigration through constraining the movements of individuals amongst habitat networks, especially as a consequence of continuously lit linear features such as roads and footpaths. Good model organisms are required to enable the relative consequences of such effects to be effectively determined, and a wider consideration of the effects of artificial light at night is needed in demographic studies across a range of species.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Canadian Science Publishing Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1181-8700 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 317  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Haag, C.R.; Riek, M.; Hottinger, J.W.; Pajunen, V.I.; Ebert, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in Daphnia metapopulations with subpopulations of known age Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Genetics Abbreviated Journal Genetics  
  Volume 170 Issue 4 Pages 1809-1820  
  Keywords Plants; Aging; Animals; Daphnia/*genetics/*physiology; *Genetic Variation; *Genetics, Population  
  Abstract If colonization of empty habitat patches causes genetic bottlenecks, freshly founded, young populations should be genetically less diverse than older ones that may have experienced successive rounds of immigration. This can be studied in metapopulations with subpopulations of known age. We studied allozyme variation in metapopulations of two species of water fleas (Daphnia) in the skerry archipelago of southern Finland. These populations have been monitored since 1982. Screening 49 populations of D. longispina and 77 populations of D. magna, separated by distances of 1.5-2180 m, we found that local genetic diversity increased with population age whereas pairwise differentiation among pools decreased with population age. These patterns persisted even after controlling for several potentially confounding ecological variables, indicating that extinction and recolonization dynamics decrease local genetic diversity and increase genetic differentiation in these metapopulations by causing genetic bottlenecks during colonization. We suggest that the effect of these bottlenecks may be twofold, namely decreasing genetic diversity by random sampling and leading to population-wide inbreeding. Subsequent immigration then may not only introduce new genetic material, but also lead to the production of noninbred hybrids, selection for which may cause immigrant alleles to increase in frequency, thus leading to increased genetic diversity in older populations.  
  Address Unite d'Ecologie et d'Evolution, Departement de Biologie, Universite de Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland. christoph.haag@ed.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0016-6731 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15937138; PMCID:PMC1449778 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 660  
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Author (up) Hale, J.D.; Davies, G.; Fairbrass, A.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Rogers, C.D.F.; Sadler, J.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages e61460  
  Keywords *Cities; England; Environmental Pollution; Geographic Mapping; Humans; Light; *Lighting; Photography; Urban Population; *Urbanization  
  Abstract Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.  
  Address School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom. j.hale@bham.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23671566; PMCID:PMC3646000 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 209  
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