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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Helm, B.; Lehmann, M.; Dowse, H.B.; Partecke, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Clocks for the city: circadian differences between forest and city songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 280 Issue 1763 Pages (down) 20130593  
  Keywords Animals; Circadian Clocks/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm; Cities; *Ecosystem; Light; Male; Songbirds/classification/*physiology; Trees; Urbanization; birds; chronotype; circadian rhythms; light at night; radio-telemetry; urbanization  
  Abstract To keep pace with progressing urbanization organisms must cope with extensive habitat change. Anthropogenic light and noise have modified differences between day and night, and may thereby interfere with circadian clocks. Urbanized species, such as birds, are known to advance their activity to early morning and night hours. We hypothesized that such modified activity patterns are reflected by properties of the endogenous circadian clock. Using automatic radio-telemetry, we tested this idea by comparing activity patterns of free-living forest and city European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We then recaptured the same individuals and recorded their activity under constant conditions. City birds started their activity earlier and had faster but less robust circadian oscillation of locomotor activity than forest conspecifics. Circadian period length predicted start of activity in the field, and this relationship was mainly explained by fast-paced and early-rising city birds. Although based on only two populations, our findings point to links between city life, chronotype and circadian phenotype in songbirds, and potentially in other organisms that colonize urban habitats, and highlight that urban environments can significantly modify biologically important rhythms in wild organisms.  
  Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell 78479, Germany. ddominoni@orn.mpg.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23740778; PMCID:PMC3774226 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 42  
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Author Phillips, A.J.K.; Vidafar, P.; Burns, A.C.; McGlashan, E.M.; Anderson, C.; Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Lockley, S.W.; Cain, S.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title High sensitivity and interindividual variability in the response of the human circadian system to evening light Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 116 Issue 24 Pages (down) 12019-12024  
  Keywords Human Health; circadian rhythms; light sensitivity; circadian disruption; melatonin suppression; evening light  
  Abstract Before the invention of electric lighting, humans were primarily exposed to intense (>300 lux) or dim (<30 lux) environmental light-stimuli at extreme ends of the circadian system's dose-response curve to light. Today, humans spend hours per day exposed to intermediate light intensities (30-300 lux), particularly in the evening. Interindividual differences in sensitivity to evening light in this intensity range could therefore represent a source of vulnerability to circadian disruption by modern lighting. We characterized individual-level dose-response curves to light-induced melatonin suppression using a within-subjects protocol. Fifty-five participants (aged 18-30) were exposed to a dim control (<1 lux) and a range of experimental light levels (10-2,000 lux for 5 h) in the evening. Melatonin suppression was determined for each light level, and the effective dose for 50% suppression (ED50) was computed at individual and group levels. The group-level fitted ED50 was 24.60 lux, indicating that the circadian system is highly sensitive to evening light at typical indoor levels. Light intensities of 10, 30, and 50 lux resulted in later apparent melatonin onsets by 22, 77, and 109 min, respectively. Individual-level ED50 values ranged by over an order of magnitude (6 lux in the most sensitive individual, 350 lux in the least sensitive individual), with a 26% coefficient of variation. These findings demonstrate that the same evening-light environment is registered by the circadian system very differently between individuals. This interindividual variability may be an important factor for determining the circadian clock's role in human health and disease.  
  Address Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia sean.cain@monash.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31138694 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2521  
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Author Kooijman, S.; van den Berg, R.; Ramkisoensing, A.; Boon, M.R.; Kuipers, E.N.; Loef, M.; Zonneveld, T.C.M.; Lucassen, E.A.; Sips, H.C.M.; Chatzispyrou, I.A.; Houtkooper, R.H.; Meijer, J.H.; Coomans, C.P.; Biermasz, N.R.; Rensen, P.C.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Prolonged daily light exposure increases body fat mass through attenuation of brown adipose tissue activity Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A  
  Volume 112 Issue 21 Pages (down) 6748–6753  
  Keywords Animals; brown adipose tissue; circadian rhythms; light pollution; obesity; triglyceride metabolism  
  Abstract Disruption of circadian rhythmicity is associated with obesity and related disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Specifically, prolonged artificial light exposure associates with obesity in humans, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that increasing the daily hours of light exposure increases body adiposity through attenuation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, a major contributor of energy expenditure. Mice exposed to a prolonged day length of 16- and 24-h light, compared with regular 12-h light, showed increased adiposity without affecting food intake or locomotor activity. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that prolonged day length decreases sympathetic input into BAT and reduces beta3-adrenergic intracellular signaling. Concomitantly, prolonging day length decreased the uptake of fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, as well as of glucose from plasma selectively by BAT. We conclude that impaired BAT activity is an important mediator in the association between disturbed circadian rhythm and adiposity, and anticipate that activation of BAT may overcome the adverse metabolic consequences of disturbed circadian rhythmicity.  
  Address Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, and  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25964318 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1172  
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Author Stevens, R.G.; Blask, D.E.; Brainard, G.C.; Hansen, J.; Lockley, S.W.; Provencio, I.; Rea, M.S.; Reinlib, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Meeting report: the role of environmental lighting and circadian disruption in cancer and other diseases Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect  
  Volume 115 Issue 9 Pages (down) 1357-1362  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; *Circadian Rhythm; Environmental Exposure; Humans; *Lighting/adverse effects; *Neoplasms/etiology; Research; breast cancer; circadian rhythms; clock genes; lighting; melatonin; phototransduction; pineal gland  
  Abstract Light, including artificial light, has a range of effects on human physiology and behavior and can therefore alter human physiology when inappropriately timed. One example of potential light-induced disruption is the effect of light on circadian organization, including the production of several hormone rhythms. Changes in light-dark exposure (e.g., by nonday occupation or transmeridian travel) shift the timing of the circadian system such that internal rhythms can become desynchronized from both the external environment and internally with each other, impairing our ability to sleep and wake at the appropriate times and compromising physiologic and metabolic processes. Light can also have direct acute effects on neuroendocrine systems, for example, in suppressing melatonin synthesis or elevating cortisol production that may have untoward long-term consequences. For these reasons, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences convened a workshop of a diverse group of scientists to consider how best to conduct research on possible connections between lighting and health. According to the participants in the workshop, there are three broad areas of research effort that need to be addressed. First are the basic biophysical and molecular genetic mechanisms for phototransduction for circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral regulation. Second are the possible physiologic consequences of disrupting these circadian regulatory processes such as on hormone production, particularly melatonin, and normal and neoplastic tissue growth dynamics. Third are effects of light-induced physiologic disruption on disease occurrence and prognosis, and how prevention and treatment could be improved by application of this knowledge.  
  Address Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030-6325, USA. bugs@uchc.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17805428; PMCID:PMC1964886 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 821  
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Hopkins, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution: a mechanistic appraisal Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Abbreviated Journal Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc  
  Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages (down) 912-927  
  Keywords dark; information; light; moonlight; night; pollution; resources; rhythms; time  
  Abstract The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution have been a longstanding source of concern, accentuated by realized and projected growth in electrical lighting. As human communities and lighting technologies develop, artificial light increasingly modifies natural light regimes by encroaching on dark refuges in space, in time, and across wavelengths. A wide variety of ecological implications of artificial light have been identified. However, the primary research to date is largely focused on the disruptive influence of nighttime light on higher vertebrates, and while comprehensive reviews have been compiled along taxonomic lines and within specific research domains, the subject is in need of synthesis within a common mechanistic framework. Here we propose such a framework that focuses on the cross-factoring of the ways in which artificial lighting alters natural light regimes (spatially, temporally, and spectrally), and the ways in which light influences biological systems, particularly the distinction between light as a resource and light as an information source. We review the evidence for each of the combinations of this cross-factoring. As artificial lighting alters natural patterns of light in space, time and across wavelengths, natural patterns of resource use and information flows may be disrupted, with downstream effects to the structure and function of ecosystems. This review highlights: (i) the potential influence of nighttime lighting at all levels of biological organisation (from cell to ecosystem); (ii) the significant impact that even low levels of nighttime light pollution can have; and (iii) the existence of major research gaps, particularly in terms of the impacts of light at population and ecosystem levels, identification of intensity thresholds, and the spatial extent of impacts in the vicinity of artificial lights.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, U.K  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3231 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23565807 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 14  
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