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Author Qian, J.; Scheer, F.A.J.L.
Title (up) Circadian System and Glucose Metabolism: Implications for Physiology and Disease Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM Abbreviated Journal Trends Endocrinol Metab
Volume 27 Issue 5 Pages 282-293
Keywords Human Health; circadian rhythms; food timing; glucose metabolism; melatonin; sleep; type 2 diabetes
Abstract The circadian system serves one of the most fundamental properties present in nearly all organisms: it generates 24-h rhythms in behavioral and physiological processes and enables anticipating and adapting to daily environmental changes. Recent studies indicate that the circadian system is important in regulating the daily rhythm in glucose metabolism. Disturbance of this circadian control or of its coordination relative to the environmental/behavioral cycle, such as in shift work, eating late, or due to genetic changes, results in disturbed glucose control and increased type 2 diabetes risk. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms underlying glucose regulation by the circadian system and its disturbance may help in the development of therapeutic interventions against the deleterious health consequences of circadian disruption.
Address Medical Chronobiology Program, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; fscheer(at)bwh.harvard.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Cell Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1043-2760 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27079518; PMCID:PMC4842150 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1446
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Helm, B.; Lehmann, M.; Dowse, H.B.; Partecke, J.
Title (up) Clocks for the city: circadian differences between forest and city songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume 280 Issue 1763 Pages 20130593
Keywords Animals; Circadian Clocks/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm; Cities; *Ecosystem; Light; Male; Songbirds/classification/*physiology; Trees; Urbanization; birds; chronotype; circadian rhythms; light at night; radio-telemetry; urbanization
Abstract To keep pace with progressing urbanization organisms must cope with extensive habitat change. Anthropogenic light and noise have modified differences between day and night, and may thereby interfere with circadian clocks. Urbanized species, such as birds, are known to advance their activity to early morning and night hours. We hypothesized that such modified activity patterns are reflected by properties of the endogenous circadian clock. Using automatic radio-telemetry, we tested this idea by comparing activity patterns of free-living forest and city European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We then recaptured the same individuals and recorded their activity under constant conditions. City birds started their activity earlier and had faster but less robust circadian oscillation of locomotor activity than forest conspecifics. Circadian period length predicted start of activity in the field, and this relationship was mainly explained by fast-paced and early-rising city birds. Although based on only two populations, our findings point to links between city life, chronotype and circadian phenotype in songbirds, and potentially in other organisms that colonize urban habitats, and highlight that urban environments can significantly modify biologically important rhythms in wild organisms.
Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell 78479, Germany. ddominoni@orn.mpg.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23740778; PMCID:PMC3774226 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 42
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Author Cornean, R.E.; Margescu, M.; Simionescu, B.
Title (up) Disruption of the Cyrcadian System and Obesity Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Jurnalul Pediatrului Abbreviated Journal Jurnalul Pediatrului
Volume XVIII Issue Supplement 3 Pages 38-42
Keywords Human Health; sleep deprivation; circadian rhythms; *Chronobiology Disorders; chronodisruption; obesity
Abstract Disruption of the cyrcadian system is a relatively new concept incriminated as being responsible for obesity, cardiovascular involvement, cognitive impairment, premature aging and last but not least, cancer. Because obesity is undoubtedly assimilated today to the medical conditions related to the disruption of the normal chronobiology, this paper presents the pivotal role of chronodisruption in the neuroendocrine control of appetite among these patients.
Address University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hatieganu” Cluj – Napoca, Romania; recornean(as)yahoo.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Romanian Society of Pediatric Surgery Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2065-4855 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1349
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Author Phillips, A.J.K.; Vidafar, P.; Burns, A.C.; McGlashan, E.M.; Anderson, C.; Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Lockley, S.W.; Cain, S.W.
Title (up) High sensitivity and interindividual variability in the response of the human circadian system to evening light Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 116 Issue 24 Pages 12019-12024
Keywords Human Health; circadian rhythms; light sensitivity; circadian disruption; melatonin suppression; evening light
Abstract Before the invention of electric lighting, humans were primarily exposed to intense (>300 lux) or dim (<30 lux) environmental light-stimuli at extreme ends of the circadian system's dose-response curve to light. Today, humans spend hours per day exposed to intermediate light intensities (30-300 lux), particularly in the evening. Interindividual differences in sensitivity to evening light in this intensity range could therefore represent a source of vulnerability to circadian disruption by modern lighting. We characterized individual-level dose-response curves to light-induced melatonin suppression using a within-subjects protocol. Fifty-five participants (aged 18-30) were exposed to a dim control (<1 lux) and a range of experimental light levels (10-2,000 lux for 5 h) in the evening. Melatonin suppression was determined for each light level, and the effective dose for 50% suppression (ED50) was computed at individual and group levels. The group-level fitted ED50 was 24.60 lux, indicating that the circadian system is highly sensitive to evening light at typical indoor levels. Light intensities of 10, 30, and 50 lux resulted in later apparent melatonin onsets by 22, 77, and 109 min, respectively. Individual-level ED50 values ranged by over an order of magnitude (6 lux in the most sensitive individual, 350 lux in the least sensitive individual), with a 26% coefficient of variation. These findings demonstrate that the same evening-light environment is registered by the circadian system very differently between individuals. This interindividual variability may be an important factor for determining the circadian clock's role in human health and disease.
Address Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia sean.cain@monash.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31138694 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2521
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Carmona-Wagner, E.O.; Hofmann, M.; Kranstauber, B.; Partecke, J.
Title (up) Individual-based measurements of light intensity provide new insights into the effects of artificial light at night on daily rhythms of urban-dwelling songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 83 Issue 3 Pages 681–692
Keywords Animals; Biological rhythms; light at night; light loggers; light pollution; night shift; noise; radiotelemetry; sleep disruption; temporal niche; urban sprawl
Abstract Summary

The growing interest in the effects of light pollution on daily and seasonal cycles of animals has led to a boost of research in recent years. In birds, it has been hypothesized that artificial light at night can affect daily aspects of behaviour, but one caveat is the lack of knowledge about the light intensity that wild animals, such as birds, are exposed to during the night.

Organisms have naturally evolved daily rhythms to adapt to the 24-h cycle of day and night, thus, it is important to investigate the potential shifts in daily cycles due to global anthropogenic processes such as urbanization.

We captured adult male European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in one rural forest and two urban sites differing in the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. We tagged these birds with light loggers and simultaneously recorded changes in activity status (active/non-active) through an automated telemetry system. We first analysed the relationship between light at night, weather conditions and date with daily activity onset and end. We then compared activity, light at night exposure and noise levels between weekdays and weekends.

Onset of daily activity was significantly advanced in both urban sites compared to the rural population, while end of daily activity did not vary either among sites. Birds exposed to higher amounts of light in the late night showed earlier onset of activity in the morning, but light at night did not influence end of daily activity. Light exposure at night and onset/end of daily activity timing was not different between weekdays and weekends, but all noise variables were. A strong seasonal effect was detected in both urban and rural populations, such as birds tended to be active earlier in the morning and later in the evening (relative to civil twilight) in the early breeding season than at later stages.

Our results point at artificial light at night as a major driver of change in timing of daily activity. Future research should focus on the costs and benefits of altered daily rhythmicity in birds thriving in urban areas.
Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Am Obstberg 1, 78315, Radolfzell, Germany; Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitatsstrasse 10, 78464, Konstanz, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24102250 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 375
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