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Author van Schalkwyk, I.; Venkataraman, N.; Shankar, V.; Milton, J.; Bailey, T.; Calais, K.
Title Evaluation of the Safety Performance of Continuous Mainline Roadway Lighting on Freeway Segments in Washington State Type Report
Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Public Safety; traffic; traffic safety; road safety; continuous roadway lighting; Washington; United States
Abstract Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) evaluated continuous roadway lighting on mainline freeway segments in Washington State. An extensive literature review on the safety performance of roadway lighting was completed. As part of this research effort WSDOT developed multivariate random parameter (RP) models with specific lighting variables for continuous lighting on mainline freeway segments. Roadway lighting is often used as a countermeasure to address nighttime crashes and this research evaluates common assumption related to roadway lighting. The models developed for this research use crashes from the end of civil dusk twilight to the start of civil dawn twilight since lighting systems are of limited value outside these timeframes. Natural light conditions were estimated for crashes based on location and time of the crash event. Based on the RP results, the research team concludes that the contribution of continuous illumination to nighttime crash reduction is negligible. In addition to the findings on safety performance, a pilot LED project on US101 demonstrated that LED roadway lighting can significantly increase energy efficiency and environmental stewardship (e.g., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) while maintaining safety performance outcomes. The research team recommended modification to WSDOT design policy, including removal of the requirement of continuous mainline lighting and reduction of lighting where segment specific analysis indicates appropriate.
Address (down) Washington State Department of Transportation 310 Maple Park Ave SE, Olympia, WA, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Washington State Department of Transportation Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title WSDOT Research Report Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1427
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Author Marchant, P.; Hale, J.D.; Sadler, J.P.
Title Does changing to brighter road lighting improve road safety? Multilevel longitudinal analysis of road traffic collision frequency during the relighting of a UK city Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Public Safety; traffic safety; Roadway lighting; road safety; road traffic collisions; United Kingdom
Abstract Background A step change in the night environment is taking place, with the large-scale installation of bright, broad-spectrum road lighting such as white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One justification for this is a reduction in road traffic collisions (RTCs). This study aimed to estimate the effect of new lighting on personal injury RTCs within a large UK city.

Methods We analysed a 9-year time series of weekly RTC personal injury counts in 132 areas of the city using multilevel modelling. The RTC rate over a full 24-hour period was the primary outcome; darkness and daylight RTC rates were secondary. The background change in RTC rate was separated from the change associated with the number of newly installed bright lamps by including a polynomial underlying time trend for the logarithm of the mean number of collisions per week for each area. The study was based on a rigorous, predesigned and archived protocol.

Results Within-area coefficients for the broad lighting effect were positive; as the number of bright lamps in an area increased, so did the RTC rate. The estimate for the increase in the within-area 24-hour RTC rate is 11% (95% CI 2% to 20%). The estimate of darkness-only RTCs is 16% (95% CI 2% to 32%). If the effect of lighting on darkness RTC rate is adjusted by that for daylight, one obtains 4% (95% CI −12% to +23%).

Conclusion No evidence was found for bright lamps leading to an improvement in road safety in any of the analyses. For this city, introducing brighter road lighting may have compromised safety rather than reducing harm.
Address (down) Room 221, Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Leeds LS1 3HE, UK; p.marchant(at) leedsbeckett.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher BML Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2835
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Author Jackett, M.; Frith, W.
Title Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety -- A New Zealand Study Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication IATSS Research Abbreviated Journal IATSS Research
Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 139-145
Keywords Lighting; roadway lighting; road safety; traffic safety; public safety
Abstract It is well known from the literature that road lighting has significant safety benefits. The NZTA Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM) quotes a 35% reduction in crashes as the effect of upgrading or improving lighting where lighting is poor.

However, no well-established dose–response relationship to lighting parameters exists from which one can deduce benchmark levels of lighting for safety.

This study looked at a sample of street lighting installations spread over the urban areas of nine territorial local authorities. Standard street lighting parameters were measured in the field using a variety of instruments including illuminance meter, luminance meter and digital camera. Field measurements were related to the ratio of night-time to day time crashes as a measure of night time safety vis-a-vis daytime safety.

A statistically significant dose–response relationship was found between average road luminance and safety across all traffic volume groups, with an indication that the relationship may be stronger where more serious crashes are involved.

Threshold increment was also a significant variable but not so longitudinal uniformity or overall uniformity.

The results related to luminance will allow practitioners to better estimate the safety benefits of different levels of lighting resulting in better targeting of expenditure.
Address (down) Jackett Consulting, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; jackett(at)paradise.net.nz
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0386-1112 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 638
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Author Kostic, A.; Kremic, M.; Djokic, L.; Kostic, M.
Title Light-emitting diodes in street and roadway lighting – a case study involving mesopic effects Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 217-229
Keywords LED; LED lighting; mesopic; street lighting; outdoor lighting; roadway lighting
Abstract The paper considers the justification for the application of light-emitting diode (LED) technology to urban lighting. The results suggest that LEDs are convenient for architectural lighting and deserve to be considered for use in ambient lighting. The recently developed Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) mesopic system enabled the inclusion of mesopic effects into a comprehensive techno-economic analysis, which dealt with efficiency, maintenance and financial aspects of the use of LEDs in street and roadway lighting. It is concluded that the average energy savings when using LED instead of high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires amount to 19–26% for single-sided, staggered and opposite layouts, although they are frequently negligible if mesopic effects are not included. The total costs of the LED lighting solutions, even including mesopic effects, are 1.36 to 6.44 times higher than those of the comparable HPS lighting solutions. Therefore, LEDs are questionable for street and roadway lighting.
Address (down) Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 339
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Author Li, Fusheng; Chen, Yuming; Liu, Yang; Chen, Dahua
Title Comparative in Situ Study of LEDs and HPS in Road Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication LEUKOS: The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Abbreviated Journal Leukos
Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 205-214
Keywords Roadway lighting, visibility, LED, high-pressure sodium; LED lighting; HPS, STV, achromatic target, colored target
Abstract The effect of spectrum on the visibility of roadway lighting targets was investigated. The experiment focused on the relation between average visibility ratings and small target visibility (STV) under installations that employed LED and HPS light sources. Achromatic targets were more visible under LEDs illumination conditions than under HPS illumination conditions. The results also suggest that the visibility of colored objects on the road was better under LEDs illumination conditions in comparison to HPS. The results cannot be generalized to all LED light sources, but are likely indicative of LEDs with similar spectral power distributions (SPDs). Relative visibility under source types with different SPDs, and which provide different luminance distributions, should merit consideration when selecting a light source for roadway lighting.
Address (down) Department of Illuminating Engineering & Light Sources, School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 337
Permanent link to this record