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Author Luginbuhl, C.B.; Duriscoe, D.M.; Moore, C.W.; Richman, A.; Lockwood, G.W.; Davis, D.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title From the Ground Up II: Sky Glow and Near-Ground Artificial Light Propagation in Flagstaff, Arizona Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal Publ Astron Soc Pac  
  Volume 121 Issue 876 Pages 204-212  
  Keywords (up) Astronomical Phenomena and Seeing; Flagstaff; Arizona; sky brightness; measurements; light pollution; skyglow  
  Abstract We present panoramic sky brightness measures in the Johnson V band made at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. We find that these measures show much less sky glow from Flagstaff than expected using the total light output and unshielded fraction determined recently by Luginbuhl et al. and Garstang’s 1991 modeling approach. We suggest the difference arises principally from the diminution of upward-directed light after emission from light fixtures and reflection from the ground due to interaction with structures and vegetation. This interaction not only reduces the effective albedo, it also disproportionately reduces flux emitted upward at angles near the horizontal. We explore the size and consequences of this factor in light pollution modeling, and propose a modified upward angular distribution function to account for this effect.  
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  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 262  
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Author Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 139 Issue Pages 13-20  
  Keywords (up) Atmospheric effects; Astronomical site testing; Scattering; Light pollution; Radiative transfer; Night sky brightness; Environmental pollution; Atmospheric pollution Corresponding author contact information  
  Abstract In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 177  
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Author den Outer, P.; Lolkema, D.; Haaima, M.; van der Hoff, R.; Spoelstra, H.; Schmidt, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Intercomparisons of nine sky brightness detectors Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Abbreviated Journal Sensors (Basel)  
  Volume 11 Issue 10 Pages 9603-9612  
  Keywords (up) Calibration; Darkness; *Extraterrestrial Environment; Humans; Light; Luminescent Measurements; Netherlands; *Optical Phenomena; Optics and Photonics/*instrumentation/*methods; Sky Quality Meter; artificial lighting; intercalibration; intercomparison; light pollution; night sky brightness  
  Abstract Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs) have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across The Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between +/-14%. Individual night time sums range from -16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and -7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 +/- 0.003 mcd/m(2) on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 +/- 0.03 mcd/m(2) on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.  
  Address National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, A. van Leeuwenhoeklaan 9, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. peter.den.outer@rivm.nl  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1424-8220 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22163715; PMCID:PMC3231263 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 196  
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Author Grauer, A.D.; Grauer, P.A.; Davies, N.; Davies, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impact of Space Weather on the Natural Night Sky Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific Abbreviated Journal PASP  
  Volume 131 Issue 1005 Pages 114508  
  Keywords (up) Darkness; night sky brightness; United States; New Zealand; Sun; space weather; solar wind  
  Abstract In 2018, Solar Cycle 24 entered a deep solar minimum. During this period, we collected night sky brightness data at Cosmic Campground International Dark Sky Sanctuary (CCIDSS) in the USA (2018 September 4–2019 January 4) and at Aotea/Great Barrier Island International Dark Sky Sanctuary (AGBIIDSS) in New Zealand (2018 March 26–August 31. These sites have artificial-light-pollution-free natural night skies. The equipment employed are identical Unihedron SQM-LU-DL meters, used as single-channel differential photometers, to scan the sky as Earth rotates on its axis. We have developed new analysis techniques which select those data points which are uninfluenced by Sun, Moon, or clouds to follow brightness changes at selected points on the celestial sphere and to measure the brightness of the airglow above its quiescent level. The 2018 natural night sky was measured to change in brightness by approximately 0.9 mag arcsec−2 at both locations. Preliminary results indicate the modulations of the light curves (brightness versus R.A.) we observed are related in complex ways to elements of space weather conditions in the near-Earth environment. In particular, episodes of increased night sky brightness are observed to be contemporaneous with geomagnetic activity, increases in mean solar wind speed, and some solar proton/electron fluence events. Charged particles in the solar wind take days to reach near-Earth environment after a coronal hole is observed to be facing in our direction. Use of this information could make it possible to predict increases in Earth’s natural night sky brightness several days in advance. What we have learned during this solar minimum leads us to search for other solar driven changes in night sky brightness as the Sun begins to move into solar maximum conditions.  
  Address Catalina Sky Survey, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, USA; algrauer(at)me.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Astronomical Society of the Pacific Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6280 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2696  
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Author Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F. url  openurl
  Title A portable wide-field instrument for mapping night sky brightness automatically Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana Abbreviated Journal Mem. S.A. It.  
  Volume 74 Issue 2 Pages 458-459  
  Keywords (up) Instrumentation; all-sky; photometry; sky brightness  
  Abstract We present a portable automatic instrument for monitoring night sky brightness and atmospherical transparency in astronomical photometrical bands. Main requirements were: fast and automatic coverage of the entire sky, lightness, transportability and quick set-up in order to take measurements from more sites in the same night, easily available commercial components and software to be reproduced by any interested institution, included amateurs astronomers groups.  
  Address Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell’Inquinamento Luminoso, Thiene, Italy  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Società Astronomica Italiana Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1824-016X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2243  
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