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Author (up) DeVoe, R. D.
Title Dual Sensitivities of Cells in Wolf Spider Eyes at Ultraviolet and Visible Wavelengths of Light Type Journal Article
Year 1972 Publication Journal of General Physiology Abbreviated Journal JGP
Volume 59 Issue 3 Pages 247-269
Keywords Animals; Adaptation; Animals; Color Perception; Electroretinography; Eye; Eye: radiation effects; Light; Membrane Potentials; Ocular; Ocular Physiological Phenomena; Radiation Effects; Spiders; Spiders: physiology; Ultraviolet Rays
Abstract Intracellular recordings have been made from visual cells in principal and secondary eyes of in vitro wolf spider preparations. The responses of all cells to all wavelengths of light were graded depolarizations; no hyperpolarizations or nerve discharges were seen. Cells in a secondary eye, the anterior lateral eye, had a maximum sensitivity in the visible at 510 nm and a secondary maximum, or shoulder, of sensitivity in the near ultraviolet at 380 nm. Cells in principal eyes, the anterior median eyes, all responded maximally both in the visible at 510 nm and in the ultraviolet at 360-370 nm or less. However, there was no typical ratio of ultraviolet to visible sensitivities; the differences in log sensitivities (log UV/VIS) varied from 3.3 to -0.5. Each principal eye had a population of cells with different ratios. These populations varied with the time of the year, possibly due to changes in light upon the animals. Chromatic adaptations of cells in anterior median (but not anterior lateral) eyes resulted in small, selective changes in spectral sensitivities, and there was some facilitation of responses from cells repeatedly stimulated. It is concluded that cells of secondary eyes contain only a visual pigment absorbing maximally in the visible, while cells of principal eyes probably contain variable amounts of both this pigment and one absorbing in the ultraviolet as well.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 668
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Author (up) Meyer, L.A.; Sullivan, S.M.P.
Title Bright lights, big city: influences of ecological light pollution on reciprocal stream-riparian invertebrate fluxes Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Ecological Applications Abbreviated Journal Ecological Applications
Volume 23 Issue 6 Pages 1322-1330
Keywords ecological light pollution; ecosystem function; stream–riparian invertebrate fluxes; tetragnathid spiders; urban streams
Abstract Cities produce considerable ecological light pollution (ELP), yet the effects of artificial night lighting on biological communities and ecosystem function have not been fully explored. From June 2010 to June 2011, we surveyed aquatic emergent insects, riparian arthropods entering the water, and riparian spiders of the family Tetragnathidae at nine stream reaches representing common ambient ELP levels of Columbus, Ohio, USA, streams (low, 0.1–0.5 lux; moderate, 0.6–2.0 lux; high, 2.1–4.0 lux). In August 2011, we experimentally increased light levels at the low- and moderate-treatment reaches to 10–12 lux to represent urban streams exposed to extremely high levels of ELP. Although season exerted the dominant influence on invertebrate fluxes over the course of the year, when analyzed by season, we found that light strongly influenced multiple invertebrate responses. The experimental light addition resulted in a 44% decrease in tetragnathid spider density (P = 0.035), decreases of 16% in family richness (P = 0.040) and 76% in mean body size (P = 0.022) of aquatic emergent insects, and a 309% increase in mean body size of terrestrial arthropods (P = 0.015). Our results provide evidence that artificial light sources can alter community structure and ecosystem function in streams via changes in reciprocal aquatic–terrestrial fluxes of invertebrates.
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ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 102
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Author (up) Thompson, G.
Title Spiders and the electric light Type Journal Article
Year 1887 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science
Volume 9 Issue 208 Pages 92
Keywords Ecology; artificial light at night; spiders; arachnids
Abstract Some disadvantage or evil appears to be attendant upon every invention, and the electric light is not an exception in this respect. In this city they have been placed in positions with a view of illuminating the buildings, notably the treasury, and a fine and striking effect is produced. At the same time, a species of spider has discovered that game is plentiful in their vicinity, and that he can ply his craft both day and night. In consequence, their webs are so thick and numerous that portions of the architectural ornamentation are no longer visible, and when torn down by the wind, or when they fall from decay, the refuse gives a dingy and dirty appearance to every thing it comes in contact with. Not only this, but these adventurers take possession of the portion of the ceiling of any room which receives the illumination. It would be of interest to know whether this spider is confined to a certain latitude, and at what seasons of the year our temperature we can indulge in our illumination.
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Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1267
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Author (up) Zschokke, S.; Herberstein, M.E.
Title Laboratory Methods For Maintaining And Studying Web-Building Spiders Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Journal of Arachnology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Arachnology
Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 205-213
Keywords Animals; data collection; in various scien-; laboratory manual; methodology; popular model; spider silk; spider web; system to address questions; web-building spiders
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ISSN 0161-8202 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 677
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