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Author Grunst, M.L.; Raap, T.; Grunst, A.S.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M.
Title (up) Artificial light at night does not affect telomere shortening in a developing free-living songbird: A field experiment Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment
Volume 662 Issue Pages 266-275
Keywords Animals; birds; Great tit; Parus major; telomere shortening; Stress
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly pervasive anthropogenic disturbance factor. ALAN can seriously disrupt physiological systems that follow circadian rhythms, and may be particularly influential early in life, when developmental trajectories are sensitive to stressful conditions. Using great tits (Parus major) as a model species, we experimentally examined how ALAN affects physiological stress in developing nestlings. We used a repeated-measure design to assess effects of ALAN on telomere shortening, body mass, tarsus length and body condition. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences that protect chromosomes from damage and malfunction. Early-life telomere shortening can be accelerated by environmental stressors, and has been linked to later-life declines in survival and reproduction. We also assayed nitric oxide, as an additional metric of physiological stress, and determined fledging success. Change in body condition between day 8 and 15 differed according to treatment. Nestlings exposed to ALAN displayed a trend towards a decline in condition, whereas control nestlings displayed a trend towards increased condition. This pattern was driven by a greater increase in tarsus length relative to mass in nestlings exposed to ALAN. Nestlings in poorer condition and nestlings that were smaller than their nest mates had shorter telomeres. However, exposure to ALAN was unrelated to telomere shortening, and also had no effect on nitric oxide concentrations or fledging success. Thus, exposure to ALAN may not have led to sufficient stress to induce telomere shortening. Indeed, plasticity in other physiological systems could allow nestlings to maintain telomere length despite moderate stress. Alternatively, the cascade of physiological and behavioral responses associated with light exposure may have no net effect on telomere dynamics.
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ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2161
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Author Sharkey, K.M.; Carskadon, M.A.; Figueiro, M.G.; Zhu, Y.; Rea, M.S.
Title (up) Effects of an advanced sleep schedule and morning short wavelength light exposure on circadian phase in young adults with late sleep schedules Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med
Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages 685-692
Keywords Affect/physiology/radiation effects; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology/*radiation effects; Color; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/metabolism; Photoperiod; Phototherapy/*methods; Saliva/metabolism; Sleep/physiology/radiation effects; Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm/prevention & control/*therapy; Stress, Psychological/prevention & control/therapy; Treatment Outcome; Young Adult; blue light
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of an advanced sleep/wake schedule and morning short wavelength (blue) light in 25 adults (mean age+/-SD=21.8+/-3 years; 13 women) with late sleep schedules and subclinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). METHODS: After a baseline week, participants kept individualized, fixed, advanced 7.5-h sleep schedules for 6days. Participants were randomly assigned to groups to receive “blue” (470nm, approximately 225lux, n=12) or “dim” (<1lux, n=13) light for 1h after waking each day. Head-worn “Daysimeters” measured light exposure; actigraphs and sleep diaries confirmed schedule compliance. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), self-reported sleep, and mood were examined with 2x2 ANOVA. RESULTS: After 6days, both groups showed significant circadian phase advances, but morning blue light was not associated with larger phase shifts than dim-light exposure. The average DLMO advances (mean+/-SD) were 1.5+/-1.1h in the dim light group and 1.4+/-0.7h in the blue light group. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a fixed advanced sleep/wake schedule resulted in significant circadian phase shifts in young adults with subclinical DSPD with or without morning blue light exposure. Light/dark exposures associated with fixed early sleep schedules are sufficient to advance circadian phase in young adults.
Address Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Box G-RIH, Providence, RI 02912, USA. katherine_sharkey@brown.edu
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1389-9457 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21704557; PMCID:PMC3145013 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 303
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Author Cope, K.L.; Schook, M.W.; Benard, M.F.
Title (up) Exposure to artificial light at night during the larval stage has delayed effects on juvenile corticosterone concentration in American toads, Anaxyrus americanus Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication General and Comparative Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Gen Comp Endocrinol
Volume in press Issue Pages 113508
Keywords Animals; amphibian; anthropogenic light; carry-over effects; environmental stressor; glucocorticoid; predation
Abstract Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is an environmental stressor that can disrupt individual physiology and ecological interactions. Hormones such as corticosterone are often responsible for mediating an organism's response to environmental stressors. We investigated whether ALAN was associated with a corticosterone response and whether it exacerbated the effects of another common stressor, predation. We tested for consumptive, non-consumptive, and physiological effects of ALAN and predator presence (dragonfly larvae) on a widespread amphibian, the American toad (Anaxyrus americanus). We found predators had consumptive (decreased survival) and non-consumptive (decreased growth) effects on larval toads. ALAN did not affect larval toads nor did it interact with the predator treatment to increase larval toad predation. Despite the consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators, neither predators nor ALAN affected corticosterone concentration in the larval and metamorph life-stages. In contrast to studies in other organisms, we did not find any evidence that suggested ALAN alters predator-prey interactions between dragonfly larvae and toads. However, there was an inverse relationship between corticosterone and survival that was exacerbated by exposure to ALAN when predators were absent. Additionally, larval-stage exposure to ALAN increased corticosterone concentration in juvenile toads. Our results suggest the physiological effects of ALAN may not be demonstrated until later life-stages.
Address Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44016, USA. Electronic address: mfb38@case.edu
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0016-6480 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32442544 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2931
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Author Ouyang, J.Q.; Davies, S.; Dominoni, D.
Title (up) Hormonally mediated effects of artificial light at night on behavior and fitness: linking endocrine mechanisms with function Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol
Volume 221 Issue Pt 6 Pages
Keywords Human Health; Alan; Glucocorticoid; Hormones; Light pollution; Melatonin; Metabolism; Sleep; Stress; Thyroid; Urban ecology
Abstract Alternation between day and night is a predictable environmental fluctuation that organisms use to time their activities. Since the invention of artificial lighting, this predictability has been disrupted and continues to change in a unidirectional fashion with increasing urbanization. As hormones mediate individual responses to changing environments, endocrine systems might be one of the first systems affected, as well as being the first line of defense to ameliorate any negative health impacts. In this Review, we first highlight how light can influence endocrine function in vertebrates. We then focus on four endocrine axes that might be affected by artificial light at night (ALAN): pineal, reproductive, adrenal and thyroid. Throughout, we highlight key findings, rather than performing an exhaustive review, in order to emphasize knowledge gaps that are hindering progress on proposing impactful and concrete plans to ameliorate the negative effects of ALAN. We discuss these findings with respect to impacts on human and animal health, with a focus on the consequences of anthropogenic modification of the night-time environment for non-human organisms. Lastly, we stress the need for the integration of field and lab experiments as well as the need for long-term integrative eco-physiological studies in the rapidly expanding field of light pollution.
Address Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK;
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29545373 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1817
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Author Sharma, A.; Goyal, R.
Title (up) Long-term exposure to constant light induces dementia, oxidative stress and promotes aggregation of sub-pathological Abeta42 in Wistar rats Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav
Volume in press Issue Pages 172892
Keywords Animals; Amyloid beta; Behavior, fluoxetine, rifampicin; Oxidative stress
Abstract Constant exposure to light is prevalent in modern society where light noise, shift work, and jet lag is common. Constant light exposure disrupts circadian rhythm, induces stress and thus influences memory performance. We subjected adult male Wistar rats to a two-month exposure to constant light (LL), constant dark or normal light-dark cycles. Significant cognitive impairment and oxidative stress were observed in LL rats without a significant elevation in soluble Abeta1-42 levels. Next, we examined whether long-term exposure to constant light may accelerate dementia in a sub-pathological Abeta model of rats. Normal control rats received ACSF, AD rats received 440pmol, and sub-pathological Abeta rats (Abeta(s)) received 220pmol of human Abeta42 peptide in a single unilateral ICV administration. Sub-pathological Abeta rats exposed to constant light (LL+Abeta(s)) show significant memory deficits and oxidative damage, although not significantly different from LL rats. Additionally, constant light promoted aggregation of exogenous Abeta42 in LL+Abeta(s) rats shown by the presence of congophilic plaques. Furthermore, chronic fluoxetine treatment (5mg/kg/day) rescued rats from the behavioral deficits, oxidative damage and amyloid aggregation. Whereas, rifampicin treatment (20mg/kg/day) did not reverse the behavioral deficits or oxidative stress but rescued rats from amyloid plaque formation. It was concluded that constant light for two months induces behavioral deficits, oxidative stress, and accelerates aggregation of sub-pathological concentrations of human-Abeta42 peptides in Wistar rats, which is reversed by daily fluoxetine administration.
Address Neuropharmacology Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan 173 212, Himachal Pradesh, India. Electronic address: rohitgoyal@shooliniuniversity.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0091-3057 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32142744 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2841
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