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Author Sharkey, K.M.; Carskadon, M.A.; Figueiro, M.G.; Zhu, Y.; Rea, M.S.
Title Effects of an advanced sleep schedule and morning short wavelength light exposure on circadian phase in young adults with late sleep schedules Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med
Volume 12 Issue 7 Pages 685-692
Keywords Affect/physiology/radiation effects; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology/*radiation effects; Color; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/metabolism; Photoperiod; Phototherapy/*methods; Saliva/metabolism; Sleep/physiology/radiation effects; Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm/prevention & control/*therapy; Stress, Psychological/prevention & control/therapy; Treatment Outcome; Young Adult; blue light
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of an advanced sleep/wake schedule and morning short wavelength (blue) light in 25 adults (mean age+/-SD=21.8+/-3 years; 13 women) with late sleep schedules and subclinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). METHODS: After a baseline week, participants kept individualized, fixed, advanced 7.5-h sleep schedules for 6days. Participants were randomly assigned to groups to receive “blue” (470nm, approximately 225lux, n=12) or “dim” (<1lux, n=13) light for 1h after waking each day. Head-worn “Daysimeters” measured light exposure; actigraphs and sleep diaries confirmed schedule compliance. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), self-reported sleep, and mood were examined with 2x2 ANOVA. RESULTS: After 6days, both groups showed significant circadian phase advances, but morning blue light was not associated with larger phase shifts than dim-light exposure. The average DLMO advances (mean+/-SD) were 1.5+/-1.1h in the dim light group and 1.4+/-0.7h in the blue light group. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a fixed advanced sleep/wake schedule resulted in significant circadian phase shifts in young adults with subclinical DSPD with or without morning blue light exposure. Light/dark exposures associated with fixed early sleep schedules are sufficient to advance circadian phase in young adults.
Address Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Box G-RIH, Providence, RI 02912, USA. katherine_sharkey@brown.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1389-9457 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21704557; PMCID:PMC3145013 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 303
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Author Romano, M.C.; Rodas, A.Z.; Valdez, R.A.; Hernandez, S.E.; Galindo, F.; Canales, D.; Brousset, D.M.
Title Stress in wildlife species: noninvasive monitoring of glucocorticoids Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Neuroimmunomodulation Abbreviated Journal Neuroimmunomodulation
Volume 17 Issue 3 Pages 209-212
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Animals, Wild/immunology/*metabolism; Animals, Zoo/immunology/*metabolism; Cetacea/immunology/metabolism; Depressive Disorder/metabolism/physiopathology; Ecosystem; Environment; Feces/chemistry; Felidae/immunology/metabolism; Glucocorticoids/*analysis/*metabolism; Housing, Animal; Primates/immunology/metabolism; Radioimmunoassay/methods; Social Behavior; Stress, Psychological/*diagnosis/*metabolism/physiopathology; Testosterone/analysis/metabolism
Abstract Depression and stress are related pathologies extensively studied in humans. However, this relationship is not well known in animals kept in zoos and even less known in wild animals. In zoo animals, acute and chronic stress caused by difficulties in coping with stressors such as public presence and noise, among others, can induce the appearance of repetitive pathological behaviors such as stereotypies, many times associated with organic pathologies that deeply affect their health and welfare. In the wild, factors such as deforestation, habitat fragmentation, lack of food and water, and human disturbances are potential causes of acute and chronic stress for the resident fauna. Glucocorticoids (GC) have been extensively used as stress indicators in many species including humans. Since chase and handling of wild animals immediately raise their GC serum levels, noninvasive methods have been developed to assess stress without interference caused by sample collection. The hormones and their metabolites can be measured in various body fluids and excreta and detect basal feedback free hormone concentrations as well as the response to ACTH and handling. In order to study the influence of disturbing factors we have measured GC as stress indicators by noninvasive techniques in dolphins and felids (ocelots, jaguarundis and margays) and cortisol and testosterone in spider monkeys.
Address Departamento de Fisiologia, Biofisica y Neurociencias, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico, Mexico. mromano@fisio.cinvestav.mx
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1021-7401 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:20134205 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 585
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Author Navara, K.J.; Nelson, R.J.
Title The dark side of light at night: physiological, epidemiological, and ecological consequences Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res
Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 215-224
Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks; *Darkness; Disease; Ecology; Humans; Oxidative Stress; Work
Abstract Organisms must adapt to the temporal characteristics of their surroundings to successfully survive and reproduce. Variation in the daily light cycle, for example, acts through endocrine and neurobiological mechanisms to control several downstream physiological and behavioral processes. Interruptions in normal circadian light cycles and the resulting disruption of normal melatonin rhythms cause widespread disruptive effects involving multiple body systems, the results of which can have serious medical consequences for individuals, as well as large-scale ecological implications for populations. With the invention of electrical lights about a century ago, the temporal organization of the environment has been drastically altered for many species, including humans. In addition to the incidental exposure to light at night through light pollution, humans also engage in increasing amounts of shift-work, resulting in repeated and often long-term circadian disruption. The increasing prevalence of exposure to light at night has significant social, ecological, behavioral, and health consequences that are only now becoming apparent. This review addresses the complicated web of potential behavioral and physiological consequences resulting from exposure to light at night, as well as the large-scale medical and ecological implications that may result.
Address Department of Psychology, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. knavara@gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:17803517 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 17
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Author Perkin, E.K.; Hölker, F.; Richardson, J.S.; Sadler, J.P.; Wolter, C.; Tockner, K.
Title The influence of artificial light on stream and riparian ecosystems: questions, challenges, and perspectives Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal Ecosphere
Volume 2 Issue 11 Pages art122
Keywords aquatic invertebrates; artificial illumination; ecosystems; fish; multiple stressors; riparian; streams; urbanization
Abstract Artificial light at night is gaining attention for its potential to alter ecosystems. Although terrestrial ecologists have observed that artificial light at night may disrupt migrations, feeding, and other important ecological functions, we know comparatively little about the role artificial light might play in disrupting freshwater and riparian ecosystems. We identify and discuss four future research domains that artificial light may influence in freshwater and associated terrestrial ecosystems, with an emphasis on running waters: (1) dispersal, (2) population genetics and evolution, (3) ecosystem functioning, and (4) potential interactions with other stressors. We suggest that future experimental and modeling studies should focus on the effects of different spectral emissions by different light sources on freshwater organisms, the spatial and temporal scale over which artificial light acts, and the magnitude of change in light at night across the landscape relative to the distribution of running and standing waters. Improved knowledge about the effects of artificial light on freshwater ecosystems will inform policy decisions about changes to artificial light spectral emissions and distributions.

Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/ES11-00241.1
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 24
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Author Smith, S.D.P.; McIntyre, P.B.; Halpern, B.S.; Cooke, R.M.; Marino, A.L.; Boyer, G.L.; Buchsbaum, A.; Burton, J., G. Allen; Campbell, L.M.; Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Doran, P.J.; Infante, D.M.; Johnson, L.B.; Read, J.G.; Rose, J.B.; Rutherford, E.S.; Steinman, A.D.; Allan, J.D.
Title Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Ecological Applications Abbreviated Journal Ecological Applications
Volume Issue Pages 140915094202006
Keywords Great Lakes; limnology; light pollution; environment; stressor; ecology
Abstract Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in relative impact can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors to have some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 372
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