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Author (up) Abay, K.A.; Amare, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night light intensity and women's body weight: Evidence from Nigeria Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Economics and Human Biology Abbreviated Journal Econ Hum Biol  
  Volume 31 Issue Pages 238-248  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health; Adolescent; Adult; Body Mass Index; *Body Weight; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Lighting/*statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; Nigeria/epidemiology; Obesity/epidemiology; Overweight/*epidemiology; Prevalence; *Urbanization; Young Adult; *Bmi; *Nigeria; *Night light; *Obesity; *Overweight; *Urbanization  
  Abstract The prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing in many African countries and hence becoming regional public health challenges. We employ satellite-based night light intensity data as a proxy for urbanization to investigate the relationship between urbanization and women's body weight. We use two rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey data from Nigeria. We employ both nonparametric and parametric estimation approaches that exploit both the cross-sectional and longitudinal variations in night light intensities. Our empirical analysis reveals nonlinear relationships between night light intensity and women's body weight measures. Doubling the sample's average level of night light intensity is associated with up to a ten percentage point increase in the probability of overweight. However, despite the generally positive relationship between night light intensity and women's body weight, the strength of the relationship varies across the assorted stages of night light intensity. Early stages of night light intensity are not significantly associated with women's body weight, while higher stages of nightlight intensities are associated with higher rates of overweight and obesity. Given that night lights are strong predictors of urbanization and related economic activities, our results hint at nonlinear relationships between various stages of urbanization and women's body weight.  
  Address International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), USA. Electronic address: M.Amare@cgiar.org  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1570-677X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30312904 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2714  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ecological effects of artificial light at night on wild plants Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Ecol  
  Volume 104 Issue 3 Pages 611-620  
  Keywords Plants; wild plants; photobiology; Circadian; Ecophysiology; light cycles; light pollution; photoperiodism; photopollution; physiology; sky glow; urban ecology  
  Abstract 1.Plants use light as a source of both energy and information. Plant physiological responses to light, and interactions between plants and animals (such as herbivory and pollination), have evolved under a more or less stable regime of 24-hour cycles of light and darkness, and, outside of the tropics, seasonal variation in daylength.

2.The rapid spread of outdoor electric lighting across the globe over the past century has caused an unprecedented disruption to these natural light cycles. Artificial light is widespread in the environment, varying in intensity by several orders of magnitude from faint skyglow reflected from distant cities to direct illumination of urban and suburban vegetation.

3.In many cases artificial light in the nighttime environment is sufficiently bright to induce a physiological response in plants, affecting their phenology, growth form and resource allocation. The physiology, behaviour and ecology of herbivores and pollinators is also likely to be impacted by artificial light. Thus, understanding the ecological consequences of artificial light at night is critical to determine the full impact of human activity on ecosystems.

4.Synthesis. Understanding the impacts of artificial nighttime light on wild plants and natural vegetation requires linking the knowledge gained from over a century of experimental research on the impacts of light on plants in the laboratory and greenhouse with knowledge of the intensity, spatial distribution, spectral composition and timing of light in the nighttime environment. To understand fully the extent of these impacts requires conceptual models that can (i) characterise the highly heterogeneous nature of the nighttime light environment at a scale relevant to plant physiology, and (ii) scale physiological responses to predict impacts at the level of the whole plant, population, community and ecosystem.
 
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, United Kimgdom; j.j.bennie(at)exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0477 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1350  
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Author (up) Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Chisholm, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping artificial lightscapes for ecological studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Methods in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Methods Ecol Evol  
  Volume 5 Issue 6 Pages 534-540  
  Keywords light pollution; urban ecology; landscape ecology; diurnal; nocturnal; night; light  
  Abstract Artificial illumination of the night is increasing globally. There is growing evidence of a range of ecological impacts of artificial light and awareness of light pollution as a significant environmental issue. In urban and suburban areas, complex spatial patterns of light sources, structures and vegetation create a highly heterogeneous night-time light environment for plants and animals.

We developed a method for modelling the night-time light environment at a high spatial resolution in a small urban area for ecological studies. We used the position and height of street lights, and digital terrain and surface models, to predict the direct light intensity at different wavelengths at different heights above the ground surface.

Validation against field measurements of night-time light showed that modelled light intensities in the visible and ultraviolet portions of the spectrum were accurate.

We show how this model can be used to map biologically relevant lightscapes across an urban landscape. We also illustrate the utility of the model using night-time light maps as resistance surfaces in the software package circuitscape to predict potential movement of model nocturnal species between habitat patches and to identify key corridors and barriers to movement and dispersal.

Understanding the ecological effects of artificial light requires knowledge of the light environment experienced by organisms throughout the diurnal and annual cycles, during periods of activity and rest and during different life stages. Our approach to high-resolution mapping of artificial lightscapes can be adapted to the sensitivity to light of different species and to other urban, suburban, rural and industrial landscapes.
 
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  ISSN 2041210X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 171  
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Author (up) Cabrera-Cruz, S.A.; Smolinsky, J.A.; McCarthy, K.P.; Buler, J.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urban areas affect flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; Aeroecology; bird migration; flight altitude; light pollution; radar; urbanization  
  Abstract 1.Urban areas affect terrestrial ecological processes and local weather, but we know little about their effect on aerial ecological processes. 2.Here, we identify urban from non-urban areas based on the intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the landscape, and, along with weather covariates, evaluate the effect of urbanization on flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds. 3.Birds are attracted to ALAN, hence we predicted that altitudes would be lower over urban than over non-urban areas. However, other factors associated with urbanization may also affect flight altitudes. For example, surface temperature and terrain roughness are higher in urban areas, increasing air turbulence, height of the boundary layer, and affecting local winds. 4.We used data from nine weather surveillance radars in the eastern US to estimate altitudes at five quantiles of the vertical distribution of birds migrating at night over urban and non-urban areas during five consecutive spring and autumn migration seasons. We fit generalized linear mixed models by season for each of the five quantiles of bird flight altitude and their differences between urban and non-urban areas. 5.After controlling for other environmental variables and contrary to our prediction, we found that birds generally fly higher over urban areas compared to rural areas in spring, and marginally higher at the mid layers of the vertical distribution in autumn. We also identified a small interaction effect between urbanization and crosswind speed, and between urbanization and surface air temperature, on flight altitudes. We also found that the difference in flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds between urban and non-urban areas varied among radars and seasons, but were consistently higher over urban areas throughout the years sampled. 6.Our results suggest that the effects of urbanization on wildlife extend into the aerosphere, and are complex, stressing the need of understanding the influence of anthropogenic factors on airspace habitat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, University of Delaware, Delaware, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31330569 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2604  
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Author (up) Chalkias, C.; Petrakis, M.; Psiloglou, B.; Lianou, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Modelling of light pollution in suburban areas using remotely sensed imagery and GIS Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage  
  Volume 79 Issue 1 Pages 57-63  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Air Pollutants/*analysis; Cities; Environmental Monitoring/*methods; *Geographic Information Systems; Greece; Humans; *Light; Models, Theoretical; *Suburban Health  
  Abstract This paper describes a methodology for modelling light pollution using geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology. The proposed approach attempts to address the issue of environmental assessment in sensitive suburban areas. The modern way of life in developing countries is conductive to environmental degradation in urban and suburban areas. One specific parameter for this degradation is light pollution due to intense artificial night lighting. This paper aims to assess this parameter for the Athens metropolitan area, using modern analytical and data capturing technologies. For this purpose, night-time satellite images and analogue maps have been used in order to create the spatial database of the GIS for the study area. Using GIS advanced analytical functionality, visibility analysis was implemented. The outputs for this analysis are a series of maps reflecting direct and indirect light pollution around the city of Athens. Direct light pollution corresponds to optical contact with artificial night light sources, while indirect light pollution corresponds to optical contact with the sky glow above the city. Additionally, the assessment of light pollution in different periods allows for dynamic evaluation of the phenomenon. The case study demonstrates high levels of light pollution in Athens suburban areas and its increase over the last decade.  
  Address Department of Geography, Harokopio University, El. Venizelou Str., Kalithea, 17671 Athens, Greece. xalkias@hua.gr  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16171928 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 729  
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