toggle visibility Search & Display Options

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author Pun, C.S.J.; So, C.W.; Leung, W.Y.; Wong, C.F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Contributions of artificial lighting sources on light pollution in Hong Kong measured through a night sky brightness monitoring network Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer Abbreviated Journal Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer  
  Volume 139 Issue (up) Pages 90-108  
  Keywords Light pollution; Night sky brightness; Skyglow; Moon radiation; Urban lighting; Hong Kong  
  Abstract Light pollution is a form of environmental degradation in which excessive artificial outdoor lighting, such as street lamps, neon signs, and illuminated signboards, affects the natural environment and the ecosystem. Poorly designed outdoor lighting not only wastes energy, money, and valuable Earth resources, but also robs us of our beautiful night sky. Effects of light pollution on the night sky can be evaluated by the skyglow caused by these artificial lighting sources, through measurements of the night sky brightness (NSB). The Hong Kong Night Sky Brightness Monitoring Network (NSN) was established to monitor in detail the conditions of light pollution in Hong Kong. Monitoring stations were set up throughout the city covering a wide range of urban and rural settings to continuously measure the variations of the NSB. Over 4.6 million night sky measurements were collected from 18 distinct locations between May 2010 and March 2013. This huge dataset, over two thousand times larger than our previous survey [1], forms the backbone for studies of the temporal and geographical variations of this environmental parameter and its correlation with various natural and artificial factors. The concepts and methodology of the NSN were presented here, together with an analysis of the overall night sky conditions in Hong Kong. The average NSB in Hong Kong, excluding data affected by the Moon, was 16.8 mag arcsec−2, or 82 times brighter than the dark site standard established by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) [2]. The urban night sky was on average 15 times brighter than that in a rural location, firmly establishing the effects of artificial lighting sources on the night sky.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-4073 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 186  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kuechly, H.U.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Lindemann, C.; Wolter, C.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Aerial survey and spatial analysis of sources of light pollution in Berlin, Germany Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 126 Issue (up) Pages 39-50  
  Keywords Light pollution; Artificial lighting; Urban analysis; Remote sensing; GIS; Darkness; Spatial analysis; Light at night  
  Abstract Aerial observations of light pollution can fill an important gap between ground based surveys and nighttime satellite data. Terrestrially bound surveys are labor intensive and are generally limited to a small spatial extent, and while existing satellite data cover the whole world, they are limited to coarse resolution. This paper describes the production of a high resolution (1 m) mosaic image of the city of Berlin, Germany at night. The dataset is spatially analyzed to identify the major sources of light pollution in the city based on urban land use data. An area-independent ‘brightness factor’ is introduced that allows direct comparison of the light emission from differently sized land use classes, and the percentage area with values above average brightness is calculated for each class. Using this methodology, lighting associated with streets has been found to be the dominant source of zenith directed light pollution (31.6%), although other land use classes have much higher average brightness. These results are compared with other urban light pollution quantification studies. The minimum resolution required for an analysis of this type is found to be near 10 m. Future applications of high resolution datasets such as this one could include: studies of the efficacy of light pollution mitigation measures, improved light pollution simulations, economic and energy use, the relationship between artificial light and ecological parameters (e.g. circadian rhythm, fitness, mate selection, species distributions, migration barriers and seasonal behavior), or the management of nightscapes. To encourage further scientific inquiry, the mosaic data is freely available at Pangaea: http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.785492.  
  Address Freie Universität Berlin, Department of Earth Sciences, Institute for Space Sciences, Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6‐10, 12165 Berlin, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 188  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Levin, N.; Duke, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title High spatial resolution night-time light images for demographic and socio-economic studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 119 Issue (up) Pages 1-10  
  Keywords Night-time lights; DMSP; SAC-C; ISS; Israel; Urban structure; light at night; light pollution; remote sensing; DMSP-OLS  
  Abstract Satellite derived night-time lights have been used to study global economic and demographic differences between countries. The majority of studies to date have used the coarse spatial resolution datasets of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). In this study, we hypothesize that night-time lights can serve as an indicator for demographic and socio-economic properties of built-up areas at a local scale. We used night-time light images acquired by the American DMSP (2003, 2.7 km), Argentinean SAC-C (2007, 300 m) and photographs taken by astronauts from the International Space Station (ISS; 2003, 60 m). We compared the night-time lights of built-up areas based on their geographical location (Israel and the West Bank) and their population (Jewish and Arab). Israeli localities were better lit than West Bank localities, corresponding to the difference in the gross domestic product of the two entities. No difference was found in the night-time lights brightness of Jewish and Arab localities within Israel. However, night-time lights of built-up areas with a Jewish population within Israel and the West Bank were positively correlated with population density and roads density. In contrast, built-up areas with an Arab population had weaker correlations. Differences in the urban structure of Jewish and Arab built-up areas, as well as economic and geopolitical differences between Israel and the West Bank led to the observed differences in night-time lights patterns. Demographic and infrastructure data were able to explain 60% of the spatial variation of the ISS night-time lights, compared with only 28% of the spatial variation of the DMSP night-time lights dataset. The results of this study demonstrate potential uses of night-time lights databases of high spatial resolution, and emphasize the need for a dedicated night-time lights observing satellite.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 218  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ma, T.; Zhou, C.; Pei, T.; Haynie, S.; Fan, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantitative estimation of urbanization dynamics using time series of DMSP/OLS nighttime light data: A comparative case study from China's cities Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 124 Issue (up) Pages 99-107  
  Keywords Urbanization; DMSP-OLS; Nighttime light; Statistical analysis; China; remote sensing; satellite; light at night  
  Abstract Urbanization process involving increased population size, spatially extended land cover and intensified economic activity plays a substantial role in anthropogenic environment changes. Remotely sensed nighttime lights datasets derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) provide a consistent measure for characterizing trends in urban sprawl over time (Sutton, 2003). The utility of DMSP/OLS imagery for monitoring dynamics in human settlement and economic activity at regional to global scales has been widely verified in previous studies through statistical correlations between nighttime light brightness and demographic and economic variables ( and ). The quantitative relationship between long-term nighttime light signals and urbanization variables, required for extensive application of DMSP/OLS data for estimating and projecting the trajectory of urban development, however, are not well addressed for individual cities at a local scale. We here present analysis results concerning quantitative responses of stable nighttime lights derived from time series of DMSP/OLS imagery to changes in urbanization variables during 1994–2009 for more than 200 prefectural-level cities and municipalities in China. To identify the best-fitting model for nighttime lights-based measurement of urbanization processes with different development patterns, we comparatively use three regression models: linear, power-law and exponential functions to quantify the long-term relationships between nighttime weighted light area and four urbanization variables: population, gross domestic product (GDP), built-up area and electric power consumption. Our results suggest that nighttime light brightness could be an explanatory indicator for estimating urbanization dynamics at the city level. Various quantitative relationships between urban nighttime lights and urbanization variables may indicate diverse responses of DMSP/OLS nighttime light signals to anthropogenic dynamics in urbanization process in terms of demographic and economic variables. At the city level, growth in weighted lit area may take either a linear, concave (exponential) or convex (power law) form responsive to expanding human population and economic activities during urbanization. Therefore, in practice, quantitative models for using DMSP/OLS data to estimate urbanization dynamics should vary with different patterns of urban development, particularly for cities experiencing rapid urban growth at a local scale.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 219  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night on Earth: Mapping decadal changes of anthropogenic night light in Asia Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation  
  Volume 22 Issue (up) Pages 40-52  
  Keywords Urban; Night light; DMSP-OLS; Landsat; Zipf; Asia; India; China; Nightsat; remote sensing; light at night; satellite  
  Abstract The defense meteorological satellite program (DMSP) operational linescan system (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970s. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years (Elvidge et al., 2009). The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of the growth and evolution of lighted human settlements and development. We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the temporal feature space to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs and spatial structure of the PCs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic multi-year trends and stochastic year-to-year variance. The low order EOFs and principal components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict potentially deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. At critical brightness threshold we find an 18% increase in the number of spatially distinct lights and an 80% increase in lighted area in southern and eastern Asia between 1992 and 2009. During this time both China and India experienced a &#8764;20% increase in number of lights and a &#8764;270% increase in lighted area – although the timing of the increase is later in China than in India. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are apparent in tri-temporal brightness composites – as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution Landsat imagery verifies multiple phases of urban growth in several cities as well as the consistent presence of low DN (<&#8764;15) background luminance for many agricultural areas. Lights also allow us to quantify changes in the size distribution and connectedness of different intensities of development. Over a wide range of brightnesses, the size distributions of spatially contiguous lighted area are consistent with power laws with exponents near &#8722;1 as predicted by Zipf's Law for cities. However, the larger lighted segments are much larger than individual cities; they correspond to vast spatial networks of contiguous development (Small et al., 2011).  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 222  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations:
Export Records: