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Author Hale, J.D.; Davies, G.; Fairbrass, A.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Rogers, C.D.F.; Sadler, J.P.
Title Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages e61460
Keywords (up) *Cities; England; Environmental Pollution; Geographic Mapping; Humans; Light; *Lighting; Photography; Urban Population; *Urbanization
Abstract Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.
Address School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom. j.hale@bham.ac.uk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23671566; PMCID:PMC3646000 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 209
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Author Kloog, I.; Stevens, R.G.; Haim, A.; Portnov, B.A.
Title Nighttime light level co-distributes with breast cancer incidence worldwide Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Cancer Causes & Control : CCC Abbreviated Journal Cancer Causes Control
Volume 21 Issue 12 Pages 2059-2068
Keywords (up) Adult; Birth Rate; Breast Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Carcinoma/*epidemiology/etiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cohort Studies; Electricity; Female; Humans; Incidence; *Light/adverse effects; Lighting; Photoperiod; Registries; Urban Population/statistics & numerical data; World Health; oncogenesis
Abstract Breast cancer incidence varies widely among countries of the world for largely unknown reasons. We investigated whether country-level light at night (LAN) is associated with incidence. We compared incidence rates of five common cancers in women (breast, lung, colorectal, larynx, and liver), observed in 164 countries of the world from the GLOBOCAN database, with population-weighted country-level LAN, and with several developmental and environmental indicators, including fertility rate, per capita income, percent of urban population, and electricity consumption. Two types of regression models were used in the analysis: Ordinary Least Squares and Spatial Errors. We found a significant positive association between population LAN level and incidence rates of breast cancer. There was no such an association between LAN level and colorectal, larynx, liver, and lung cancers. A sensitivity test, holding other variables at their average values, yielded a 30-50% higher risk of breast cancer in the highest LAN exposed countries compared to the lowest LAN exposed countries. The possibility that under-reporting from the registries in the low-resource, and also low-LAN, countries created a spurious association was evaluated in several ways and shown not to account for the results. These findings provide coherence of the previously reported case-control and cohort studies with the co-distribution of LAN and breast cancer in entire populations.
Address Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Management, University of Haifa, 31905 Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0957-5243 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:20680434 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 160
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Author Kleinteich, A.; Schneider, J.M.
Title Developmental strategies in an invasive spider: constraints and plasticity Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Ecological Entomology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 36 Issue 1 Pages 82-93
Keywords (up) Animals, arthropod development; bridge spider; dyar; growth patterns; invasive species; larinioides sclopetarius; life-history; plasticity; s rule; urban ecology
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ISSN 0307-6946 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 674
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Author Straka,T. M., Wolf, M., Gras, P., Buchholz, S., & Voigt, C. C.
Title Tree Cover Mediates the Effect of Artificial Light on Urban Bats Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue Pages 91
Keywords (up) Animals; ALAN; bats; canopy cover; chiroptera; light-emitting diodes; LED; trees; Ultraviolet; urban
Abstract With urban areas growing worldwide, so does artificial light at night (ALAN) which negatively affects many nocturnal animals, including bats. The response of bats to ALAN ranges from some opportunistic species taking advantage of insect aggregations around street lamps, particularly those emitting ultraviolet (UV) light, to others avoiding lit areas at all. Tree cover has been suggested to mitigate the negative effects of ALAN on bats by shielding areas against light scatter. Here, we investigated the effect of tree cover on the relationship between ALAN and bats in Berlin, Germany. In particular, we asked if this interaction varies with the UV light spectrum of street lamps and also across urban bat species. We expected trees next to street lamps to block ALAN, making the adjacent habitat more suitable for all species, irrespective of the wavelength spectrum of the light source. Additionally, we expected UV emitting lights next to trees to attract insects and thus, opportunistic bats. In summer 2017, we recorded bat activity at 22 green open spaces in Berlin using automated ultrasonic detectors. We analyzed bat activity patterns and landscape variables (number of street lamps with and without UV light emission, an estimate of light pollution, and tree cover density around each recording site within different spatial scales) using generalized linear mixed-effects models with a negative binomial distribution. We found a species-specific response of bats to street lamps with and without UV light, providing a more detailed picture of ALAN impacts than simply total light radiance. Moreover, we found that dense tree cover dampened the negative effect of street lamps without UV for open-space foraging bats of the genera Nyctalus, Eptesicus, and Vespertilio, yet it amplified the already existing negative or positive effect of street lamps with or without UV on Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, and Myotis spp. Our study underpins the importance of minimizing artificial light at night close to vegetation, particularly for bats adapted to spatial complexity in the environment (i.e., clutter-adapted species), and to increase dense vegetation in urban landscape to provide, besides roosting opportunities, protection against ALAN for open-space foraging bats in city landscapes.
Address Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2302
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Author Grenis, K.; Tjossem, B.; Murphy, S.
Title Predation of larval Lepidoptera in habitat fragments varies spatially and temporally but is not affected by light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Insect Conservation Abbreviated Journal J. of Insect Cons.
Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 559–566
Keywords (up) Animals; Anthropogenic disturbance; Arthropods; Conservation of Lepidoptera; Edge effects; Light pollution; Temporal variation
Abstract As human populations continue to expand, many more species are affected by habitat fragmentation and urbanization. One of the most common themes in studies of fragmented habitats is finding higher rates of predation along habitat edges. However, field studies supporting this pattern are heavily influenced by avian literature and may not apply similarly to other organisms, such as invertebrates. Field studies of predation are typically performed during the day or do not distinguish between day and night; these studies therefore overlook daily fluctuations in predation and may miss important effects that occur solely at night, such as light pollution from streetlights. We tested whether predation of larval Lepidoptera differed between edge and core habitats and also whether predation along the habitat edge varied in response to light pollution from streetlights. We placed larvae in the core of suburban habitat patches and along the habitat edge, both under streetlights as well as between streetlights where it was dark. We found that predation rate increased in both edge and core habitats over the summer. Early season, we found daily fluctuations in predation dynamics with greater predation along the habitat edge than in the habitat core during the day, but not at night. Additionally, we found that streetlights did not affect predation rate along the habitat edge. Our results suggest that increased predation along habitat edges may be a diurnal effect.
Address Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1171
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