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Author Hale, J.D.; Davies, G.; Fairbrass, A.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Rogers, C.D.F.; Sadler, J.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages e61460  
  Keywords (up) *Cities; England; Environmental Pollution; Geographic Mapping; Humans; Light; *Lighting; Photography; Urban Population; *Urbanization  
  Abstract Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.  
  Address School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom. j.hale@bham.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23671566; PMCID:PMC3646000 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 209  
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Author Kloog, I.; Stevens, R.G.; Haim, A.; Portnov, B.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nighttime light level co-distributes with breast cancer incidence worldwide Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Cancer Causes & Control : CCC Abbreviated Journal Cancer Causes Control  
  Volume 21 Issue 12 Pages 2059-2068  
  Keywords (up) Adult; Birth Rate; Breast Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Carcinoma/*epidemiology/etiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cohort Studies; Electricity; Female; Humans; Incidence; *Light/adverse effects; Lighting; Photoperiod; Registries; Urban Population/statistics & numerical data; World Health; oncogenesis  
  Abstract Breast cancer incidence varies widely among countries of the world for largely unknown reasons. We investigated whether country-level light at night (LAN) is associated with incidence. We compared incidence rates of five common cancers in women (breast, lung, colorectal, larynx, and liver), observed in 164 countries of the world from the GLOBOCAN database, with population-weighted country-level LAN, and with several developmental and environmental indicators, including fertility rate, per capita income, percent of urban population, and electricity consumption. Two types of regression models were used in the analysis: Ordinary Least Squares and Spatial Errors. We found a significant positive association between population LAN level and incidence rates of breast cancer. There was no such an association between LAN level and colorectal, larynx, liver, and lung cancers. A sensitivity test, holding other variables at their average values, yielded a 30-50% higher risk of breast cancer in the highest LAN exposed countries compared to the lowest LAN exposed countries. The possibility that under-reporting from the registries in the low-resource, and also low-LAN, countries created a spurious association was evaluated in several ways and shown not to account for the results. These findings provide coherence of the previously reported case-control and cohort studies with the co-distribution of LAN and breast cancer in entire populations.  
  Address Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Management, University of Haifa, 31905 Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0957-5243 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20680434 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 160  
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Author Kleinteich, A.; Schneider, J.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Developmental strategies in an invasive spider: constraints and plasticity Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Ecological Entomology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 36 Issue 1 Pages 82-93  
  Keywords (up) Animals, arthropod development; bridge spider; dyar; growth patterns; invasive species; larinioides sclopetarius; life-history; plasticity; s rule; urban ecology  
  Abstract  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0307-6946 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 674  
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Author Grenis, K.; Tjossem, B.; Murphy, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Predation of larval Lepidoptera in habitat fragments varies spatially and temporally but is not affected by light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Insect Conservation Abbreviated Journal J. of Insect Cons.  
  Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 559–566  
  Keywords (up) Animals; Anthropogenic disturbance; Arthropods; Conservation of Lepidoptera; Edge effects; Light pollution; Temporal variation  
  Abstract As human populations continue to expand, many more species are affected by habitat fragmentation and urbanization. One of the most common themes in studies of fragmented habitats is finding higher rates of predation along habitat edges. However, field studies supporting this pattern are heavily influenced by avian literature and may not apply similarly to other organisms, such as invertebrates. Field studies of predation are typically performed during the day or do not distinguish between day and night; these studies therefore overlook daily fluctuations in predation and may miss important effects that occur solely at night, such as light pollution from streetlights. We tested whether predation of larval Lepidoptera differed between edge and core habitats and also whether predation along the habitat edge varied in response to light pollution from streetlights. We placed larvae in the core of suburban habitat patches and along the habitat edge, both under streetlights as well as between streetlights where it was dark. We found that predation rate increased in both edge and core habitats over the summer. Early season, we found daily fluctuations in predation dynamics with greater predation along the habitat edge than in the habitat core during the day, but not at night. Additionally, we found that streetlights did not affect predation rate along the habitat edge. Our results suggest that increased predation along habitat edges may be a diurnal effect.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1171  
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Author Davies, T.W.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Stemming the Tide of Light Pollution Encroaching into Marine Protected Areas: Light pollution in marine protected areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Conservation Letters Abbreviated Journal Conservation Lett.  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages 164–171  
  Keywords (up) Animals; Anthropogenic disturbance; artificial light; marine ecosystems; marine protected areas; pollution  
  Abstract Many marine ecosystems are shaped by regimes of natural light guiding the behavior of their constituent species. As evidenced from terrestrial systems, the global introduction of nighttime lighting is likely influencing these behaviors, restructuring marine ecosystems, and compromising the services they provide. Yet the extent to which marine habitats are exposed to artificial light at night is unknown. We quantified nighttime artificial light across the world's network of marine protected areas (MPAs). Artificial light is widespread and increasing in a large percentage of MPAs. While increases are more common among MPAs associated with human activity, artificial light is encroaching into a large proportion of even those marine habitats protected with the strongest legislative designations. Given the current lack of statutory tools, we propose that allocating “Marine Dark Sky Park” status to MPAs will help incentivize responsible authorities to hold back the advance of artificial light.  
  Address University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK. Thomas.Davies(at)exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1755263X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1222  
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