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Author Henn, M.; Nichols, H.; Zhang, Y.; Bonner, T.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of artificial light on the drift of aquatic insects in urban central Texas streams Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Freshwater Ecology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Freshwater Ecology  
  Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 307-318  
  Keywords light pollution; stream ecology; urban ecology; drift; abiotic factors; Baetidae; Chironomidae; insects; Texas; Simuliidae; Edwards Plateau; light at night; ecology  
  Abstract Light pollution can reduce night time drift of larval aquatic insects in urban streams by disrupting their circadian rhythms. Previous studies on larval insect drift show that disruption in drift leads to changes in reproduction as well as intraspecific and interspecific interactions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the effects of extreme artificial light on insect drift in urbanized, high clarity spring systems of the karst Edwards Plateau, TX. We quantified taxa richness, diversity, and abundance in aquatic insect night time drift under two treatments (ambient night time light and artificial light addition) and among five streams using a paired design. Richness and diversity of drifting aquatic insects were similar between treatments but abundance was 37% less in the light addition treatment than that of the control. Effects of light addition on mean abundance was more notable in large streams with a 58% decrease in Simuliidae (compared to that of the control) and 51% decrease in Baetidae. Reduced drift from light addition suggests the potential of artificial lighting disrupting insect drift and consequently community structure. Results of this experiment support a growing body of knowledge on how urbanized systems influence stream communities.  
  Address Department of Biology/Aquatic Station, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0270-5060 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 312  
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Author Dunnett, O, url  openurl
  Title Contested landscapes: the moral geographies of light pollution in Britain Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Cultural Geographies Abbreviated Journal Cultural Geographies  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 619-636  
  Keywords Light pollution; geography; darkness; moral geographies; urbanization  
  Abstract This paper considers the concept of light pollution and its connections to moral geographies of landscape in Britain. The paper aims to provide a greater understanding of light pollution in the present day, where the issue connects to policy debates about energy efficiency, crime, health, ecology and night time aesthetics, whilst also engaging with new areas of research in cultural geography. The main sources of investigation are the Campaign to Protect Rural England and the British Astronomical Association’s Campaign for Dark Skies (est. 1990). Using interviews, archival and textual analysis, the paper examines this anti-light-pollution lobby, looking at the lead-up to the formation of the Campaign as well as its ongoing influence. A moral geography of light pollution is identified, drawing on two interconnected discourses – a notion of the ‘astronomical sublime’ and the problem of urbanization. Whilst the former is often invoked, both through visual and linguistic means, by anti-light pollution campaigners, the latter is characterized as a threat to clear night skies, echoing earlier protests against urban sprawl. Complementing a growing area of research, the geographies of light and darkness, this paper considers the light pollution lobby as a way of investigating the fundamental relationship between humankind and the cosmos in the modern age.  
  Address School of Geography, Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Elmwood Avenue, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 353  
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Author Perkin, E.K.; Hölker, F.; Tockner, K.; Richardson, J.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light as a disturbance to light-naïve streams Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Freshwater Biology Abbreviated Journal Freshw Biol  
  Volume 59 Issue 11 Pages 2235–2244  
  Keywords cutthroat trout; drift; invertebrates; light pollution; urbanization; *Fishes; Oncorhynchus clarkii; British Columbia  
  Abstract Summary

Artificial light at night is prevalent in human-dominated landscapes, and streams in these landscapes can be expected to be affected by artificial lights. We hypothesised that artificial light at night would reduce the activity of aquatic insects, resulting in reduced drift rates, lower fish growth rates and lower leaf litter decomposition rates.

We tested these hypotheses by installing street lights to reaches in four forested, natural streams of coastal British Columbia each paired with a control reach. Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) are the top predators in these streams and feed mostly on terrestrial and drifting aquatic invertebrates.

We found that the night-time drift of aquatic invertebrates in lit reaches was ˜50% of the drift in dark reaches. However, the density of emerging aquatic insects, the density of insects falling into reaches, leaf litter decomposition rate and the number and growth rate of trout caught were not significantly different between the dark and experimentally lit reaches.

We conclude that, while short-term exposure to artificial light during the summer changes invertebrate behaviour, it does not significantly alter other trophic levels in forested headwater streams. Our results suggest that low levels of artificial light do not strongly influence stream ecosystems, but future research should determine whether this is true for all seasons and longer-term exposure to light.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0046-5070 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 361  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Pawson, S.M.; Bader, M.K.-F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title LED lighting increases the ecological impact of light pollution irrespective of color temperature Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Ecological Applications Abbreviated Journal Ecological Applications  
  Volume 24 Issue 7 Pages 1561-1568  
  Keywords biodiversity; high-pressure sodium lamp; light pollution; spectra; street lighting; urbanization; LED; color temperature; ecology  
  Abstract Recognition of the extent and magnitude of night-time light pollution impacts on natural ecosystems is increasing, with pervasive effects observed in both nocturnal and diurnal species. Municipal and industrial lighting is on the cusp of a step change where energy-efficient lighting technology is driving a shift from “yellow” high-pressure sodium vapor lamps (HPS) to new “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We hypothesized that white LEDs would be more attractive and thus have greater ecological impacts than HPS due to the peak UV-green-blue visual sensitivity of nocturnal invertebrates. Our results support this hypothesis; on average LED light traps captured 48% more insects than were captured with light traps fitted with HPS lamps, and this effect was dependent on air temperature (significant light × air temperature interaction). We found no evidence that manipulating the color temperature of white LEDs would minimize the ecological impacts of the adoption of white LED lights. As such, large-scale adoption of energy-efficient white LED lighting for municipal and industrial use may exacerbate ecological impacts and potentially amplify phytosanitary pest infestations. Our findings highlight the urgent need for collaborative research between ecologists and electrical engineers to ensure that future developments in LED technology minimize their potential ecological effects.  
  Address Scion, P.O. Box 29-237, Fendalton, Christchurch, New Zealand  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (up) Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 367  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Newport, J.; Shorthouse, D.J.; Manning, A.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of light and noise from urban development on biodiversity: Implications for protected areas in Australia Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Ecological Management & Restoration Abbreviated Journal Ecol Manag Restor  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 204-214  
  Keywords biodiversity; light; noise; pollution; protected areas; urban development; Australia; light pollution; ecology  
  Abstract Global population growth and associated urban development are having profound effects on biodiversity. Two major outcomes of expanding development that affect wildlife are light and noise pollution. In this paper, we review literature reporting the effects of light and noise on biodiversity, and assess implications for conservation planning in Australia. Our results clearly indicate that light and noise pollution have the potential to affect the physiology, behaviour and reproduction of a range of animal taxa. Types of effects include changes in foraging and reproductive behaviours, reduction in animal fitness, increased risk of predation and reduced reproductive success. These could have flow-on consequences at the population and ecosystem levels. We found a significant gap in knowledge of the impact of these pollutants on Australian fauna. To reduce the effect of light and noise pollution, there needs to be careful planning of urban areas in relation to protected areas, and for biodiversity more generally. Potential measures include strategically planning the types of development and associated human activities adjacent to protected areas, and the use of shields and barriers, such as covers for lights or the use of dense native vegetation screens, while still allowing movement of animals. Changes in government standards and regulations could also help to reduce the impacts of light and noise pollution.  
  Address  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1442-7001 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 370  
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