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Author Aulsebrook, A.E.; Connelly, F.; Johnsson, R.D.; Jones, T.M.; Mulder, R.A.; Hall, M.L.; Vyssotski, A.L.; Lesku, J.A.
Title White and Amber Light at Night Disrupt Sleep Physiology in Birds Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; anthropogenic; avian; blue light; circadian rhythms; electroencephalogram; light pollution; light spectra; sleep homeostasis; slow wave sleep; urbanization
Abstract Artificial light at night can disrupt sleep in humans [1-4] and other animals [5-10]. A key mechanism for light to affect sleep is via non-visual photoreceptors that are most sensitive to short-wavelength (blue) light [11]. To minimize effects of artificial light on sleep, many electronic devices shift from white (blue-rich) to amber (blue-reduced) light in the evening. Switching outdoor lighting from white to amber might also benefit wildlife [12]. However, whether these two colors of light affect sleep similarly in different animals remains poorly understood. Here we show, by measuring brain activity, that both white and amber lighting disrupt sleep in birds but that the magnitude of these effects differs between species. When experimentally exposed to light at night at intensities typical of urban areas, domestic pigeons (Columba livia) and wild-caught Australian magpies (Cracticus tibicen tyrannica) slept less, favored non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep over REM sleep, slept less intensely, and had more fragmented sleep compared to when lights were switched off. In pigeons, these disruptive effects on sleep were similar for white and amber lighting. For magpies, however, amber light had less impact on sleep. Our results demonstrate that amber lighting can minimize sleep disruption in some birds but that this benefit may not be universal.
Address School of Life Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32707063 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 3080
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Author Cox, D.T.C.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Dzurjak, S.A.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title National Scale Spatial Variation in Artificial Light at Night Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 10 Pages 1591
Keywords Remote Sensing; United Kingdom; National parks; skyglow; VIIRS-DNB; albedo; landcover; light emissions; light pollution; protected areas; skyglow; sky brightness; urbanization
Abstract The disruption to natural light regimes caused by outdoor artificial nighttime lighting has significant impacts on human health and the natural world. Artificial light at night takes two forms, light emissions and skyglow (caused by the scattering of light by water, dust and gas molecules in the atmosphere). Key to determining where the biological impacts from each form are likely to be experienced is understanding their spatial occurrence, and how this varies with other landscape factors. To examine this, we used data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) day/night band and the World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness, to determine covariation in (a) light emissions, and (b) skyglow, with human population density, landcover, protected areas and roads in Britain. We demonstrate that, although artificial light at night increases with human density, the amount of light per person decreases with increasing urbanization (with per capita median direct emissions three times greater in rural than urban populations, and per capita median skyglow eleven times greater). There was significant variation in artificial light at night within different landcover types, emphasizing that light pollution is not a solely urban issue. Further, half of English National Parks have higher levels of skyglow than light emissions, indicating their failure to buffer biodiversity from pressures that artificial lighting poses. The higher per capita emissions in rural than urban areas provide different challenges and opportunities for mitigating the negative human health and environmental impacts of light pollution.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK; d.t.c.cox(at )exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 2920
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Kjellberg Jensen, J.; de Jong, M.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K.
Title Artificial light at night, in interaction with spring temperature, modulates timing of reproduction in a passerine bird Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America Abbreviated Journal Ecol Appl
Volume Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals; Parus major; Alan; light pollution; phenology; timing of reproduction; urbanization
Abstract The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on phenological events such as reproductive timing is increasingly recognized. In birds, previous experiments under controlled conditions showed that ALAN strongly advances gonadal growth, but effects on egg-laying date are less clear. In particular, effects of ALAN on timing of egg-laying are found to be year-dependent, suggesting an interaction with climatic conditions such as spring temperature, which is known have strong effects on the phenology of avian breeding. Thus, we hypothesized that ALAN and temperature interact to regulate timing of reproduction in wild birds. Field studies have suggested that sources of ALAN rich in short wavelengths can lead to stronger advances in egg-laying date. We therefore tested this hypothesis in the great tit (Parus major), using a replicated experimental setup where eight previously unlit forest transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as controls. We measured timing of egg-laying for 619 breeding events spread over six consecutive years and obtained temperature data for all sites and years. We detected overall significantly earlier egg-laying dates in the white and green light versus the dark treatment, and similar trends for red light. However, there was a strong inter-annual variability in mean egg-laying dates in all treatments, which was explained by spring temperature. We did not detect any fitness consequence of the changed timing of egg-laying due to ALAN, which suggests that advancing reproduction in response to ALAN might be adaptive.
Address Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31863538 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2805
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Author Abay, K.A.; Amare, M.
Title Night light intensity and women's body weight: Evidence from Nigeria Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Economics and Human Biology Abbreviated Journal Econ Hum Biol
Volume 31 Issue Pages 238-248
Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health; Adolescent; Adult; Body Mass Index; *Body Weight; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Lighting/*statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; Nigeria/epidemiology; Obesity/epidemiology; Overweight/*epidemiology; Prevalence; *Urbanization; Young Adult; *Bmi; *Nigeria; *Night light; *Obesity; *Overweight; *Urbanization
Abstract The prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing in many African countries and hence becoming regional public health challenges. We employ satellite-based night light intensity data as a proxy for urbanization to investigate the relationship between urbanization and women's body weight. We use two rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey data from Nigeria. We employ both nonparametric and parametric estimation approaches that exploit both the cross-sectional and longitudinal variations in night light intensities. Our empirical analysis reveals nonlinear relationships between night light intensity and women's body weight measures. Doubling the sample's average level of night light intensity is associated with up to a ten percentage point increase in the probability of overweight. However, despite the generally positive relationship between night light intensity and women's body weight, the strength of the relationship varies across the assorted stages of night light intensity. Early stages of night light intensity are not significantly associated with women's body weight, while higher stages of nightlight intensities are associated with higher rates of overweight and obesity. Given that night lights are strong predictors of urbanization and related economic activities, our results hint at nonlinear relationships between various stages of urbanization and women's body weight.
Address International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), USA. Electronic address: M.Amare@cgiar.org
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1570-677X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30312904 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2714
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Author Cabrera-Cruz, S.A.; Smolinsky, J.A.; McCarthy, K.P.; Buler, J.J.
Title Urban areas affect flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 88 Issue 12 Pages 1873-1887
Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; Aeroecology; bird migration; flight altitude; light pollution; radar; urbanization
Abstract 1.Urban areas affect terrestrial ecological processes and local weather, but we know little about their effect on aerial ecological processes. 2.Here, we identify urban from non-urban areas based on the intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the landscape, and, along with weather covariates, evaluate the effect of urbanization on flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds. 3.Birds are attracted to ALAN, hence we predicted that altitudes would be lower over urban than over non-urban areas. However, other factors associated with urbanization may also affect flight altitudes. For example, surface temperature and terrain roughness are higher in urban areas, increasing air turbulence, height of the boundary layer, and affecting local winds. 4.We used data from nine weather surveillance radars in the eastern US to estimate altitudes at five quantiles of the vertical distribution of birds migrating at night over urban and non-urban areas during five consecutive spring and autumn migration seasons. We fit generalized linear mixed models by season for each of the five quantiles of bird flight altitude and their differences between urban and non-urban areas. 5.After controlling for other environmental variables and contrary to our prediction, we found that birds generally fly higher over urban areas compared to rural areas in spring, and marginally higher at the mid layers of the vertical distribution in autumn. We also identified a small interaction effect between urbanization and crosswind speed, and between urbanization and surface air temperature, on flight altitudes. We also found that the difference in flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds between urban and non-urban areas varied among radars and seasons, but were consistently higher over urban areas throughout the years sampled. 6.Our results suggest that the effects of urbanization on wildlife extend into the aerosphere, and are complex, stressing the need of understanding the influence of anthropogenic factors on airspace habitat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, University of Delaware, Delaware, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31330569 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial (down) 2604
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