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Author (up) Bortle, J.E.
Title Introducing the Bortle Dark-Sky Scale. Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Sky & Telescope Abbreviated Journal Sky Telesc
Volume Issue 60 Pages 126-129
Keywords Vision; skyglow; visibility; sky brightness
Abstract How dark is your sky? The relationship between light pollution and astronomy is a concern amateurs and professional astronomers alike. Are your skies dark enough? A precise answer to this question is useful for comparing observing sites and, more important, for determining whether a site is dark enough to let you push your eyes, telescope, or camera to their theoretical limits. Likewise, you need accurate criteria for judging sky conditions when documenting unusual or borderline observations, such as an extremely long comet tail, a faint aurora, or subtle features in galaxies.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Sky Publishing Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0037-6604 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 556
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Author (up) Crumey, A.
Title Human Contrast Threshold and Astronomical Visibility. Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS
Volume 422 Issue 3 Pages 2600-2619
Keywords Vision; visibility; skyglow; sky brightness; modeling
Abstract The standard visibility model in light-pollution studies is the formula of Hecht, as used e.g. by Schaefer. However, it is applicable only to point sources and is shown to be of limited accuracy. A new visibility model is presented for uniform achromatic targets of any size against background luminances ranging from zero to full daylight, produced by a systematic procedure applicable to any appropriate data set (e.g. Blackwell's), and based on a simple but previously unrecognized empirical relation between contrast threshold and adaptation luminance. The scotopic luminance correction for variable spectral radiance (colour index) is calculated. For point sources, the model is more accurate than Hecht's formula and is verified using telescopic data collected at Mount Wilson in 1947, enabling the sky brightness at that time to be determined. The result is darker than the calculation by Garstang, implying that light pollution grew more rapidly in subsequent decades than has been supposed. The model is applied to the nebular observations of William Herschel, enabling his visual performance to be quantified. Proposals are made regarding sky quality indicators for public use.
Address Department of Humanities, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK; andrew.crumey(at)northumbria.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 536
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Author (up) Fotios, S.; Yang, B.; Uttley, J.
Title Observing other pedestrians: Investigating the typical distance and duration of fixation Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technologying Res & Tech
Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 548-564
Keywords traffic safety; pedestrians; roadway lighting; visibility; light at night
Abstract After dark, road lighting should enhance the visual component of pedestrians’ interpersonal judgements such as evaluating the intent of others. Investigation of lighting effects requires better understanding of the nature of this task as expressed by the typical distance at which the judgement is made (and hence visual size) and the duration of observation, which in past studies have been arbitrary. Better understanding will help with interpretation of the significance of lighting characteristics such as illuminance and light spectrum. Conclusions of comfort distance in past studies are not consistent and hence this article presents new data determined using eye-tracking. We propose that further work on interpersonal judgements should examine the effects of lighting at a distance of 15 m with an observation duration of 500 ms.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 309
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Author (up) Jägerbrand, A.
Title New Framework of Sustainable Indicators for Outdoor LED (Light Emitting Diodes) Lighting and SSL (Solid State Lighting) Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 1028-1063
Keywords Conservation; sustainable development; exterior; ecological; environmental; economic; impact; light pollution; safety; visibility; social
Abstract Light emitting diodes (LEDs) and SSL (solid state lighting) are relatively new light sources, but are already widely applied for outdoor lighting. Despite this, there is little available information allowing planners and designers to evaluate and weigh different sustainability aspects of LED/SSL lighting when making decisions. Based on a literature review, this paper proposes a framework of sustainability indicators and/or measures that can be used for a general evaluation or to highlight certain objectives or aspects of special interest when choosing LED/SSL lighting. LED/SSL lighting is reviewed from a conventional sustainable development perspective, i.e., covering the three dimensions, including ecological, economic and social sustainability. The new framework of sustainable indicators allow prioritization when choosing LED/SSL products and can thereby help ensure that short-term decisions on LED/SSL lighting systems are in line with long-term sustainability goals established in society. The new framework can also be a beneficial tool for planners, decision-makers, developers and lighting designers, or for consumers wishing to use LED/SSL lighting in a sustainable manner. Moreover, since some aspects of LED/SSL lighting have not yet been thoroughly studied or developed, some possible future indicators are suggested.
Address The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Box 55685, SE-102 15 Stockholm, Sweden; E-Mail: annika.jagerbrand@vti.se; Tel.: +46-(0)-13-204219; Fax: +46-(0)-13-141436
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Enlgish Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1095
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Author (up) Li, Fusheng; Chen, Yuming; Liu, Yang; Chen, Dahua
Title Comparative in Situ Study of LEDs and HPS in Road Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication LEUKOS: The Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Abbreviated Journal Leukos
Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 205-214
Keywords Roadway lighting, visibility, LED, high-pressure sodium; LED lighting; HPS, STV, achromatic target, colored target
Abstract The effect of spectrum on the visibility of roadway lighting targets was investigated. The experiment focused on the relation between average visibility ratings and small target visibility (STV) under installations that employed LED and HPS light sources. Achromatic targets were more visible under LEDs illumination conditions than under HPS illumination conditions. The results also suggest that the visibility of colored objects on the road was better under LEDs illumination conditions in comparison to HPS. The results cannot be generalized to all LED light sources, but are likely indicative of LEDs with similar spectral power distributions (SPDs). Relative visibility under source types with different SPDs, and which provide different luminance distributions, should merit consideration when selecting a light source for roadway lighting.
Address Department of Illuminating Engineering & Light Sources, School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 337
Permanent link to this record