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Author Stone, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Value of Darkness: A Moral Framework for Urban Nighttime Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal (down) Sci Eng Ethics  
  Volume 24 Issue 2 Pages 607-628  
  Keywords Darkness; Society  
  Abstract The adverse effects of artificial nighttime lighting, known as light pollution, are emerging as an important environmental issue. To address these effects, current scientific research focuses mainly on identifying what is bad or undesirable about certain types and uses of lighting at night. This paper adopts a value-sensitive approach, focusing instead on what is good about darkness at night. In doing so, it offers a first comprehensive analysis of the environmental value of darkness at night from within applied ethics. A design for values orientation is utilized to conceptualize, define, and categorize the ways in which value is derived from darkness. Nine values are identified and categorized via their type of good, temporal outlook, and spatial characteristics. Furthermore, these nine values are translated into prima facie moral obligations that should be incorporated into future design choices, policy-making, and innovations to nighttime lighting. Thus, the value of darkness is analyzed with the practical goal of informing future decision-making about urban nighttime lighting.  
  Address Ethics and Philosophy of Technology Section, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX, Delft, The Netherlands. t.w.stone@tudelft.nl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1353-3452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28597220; PMCID:PMC5876417 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2225  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Stone, T.; Santoni de Sio, F.; Vermaas, P.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Driving in the Dark: Designing Autonomous Vehicles for Reducing Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal (down) Sci Eng Ethics  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Society; Darkness; Planning; Public Safety; Design for values  
  Abstract This paper proposes that autonomous vehicles should be designed to reduce light pollution. In support of this specific proposal, a moral assessment of autonomous vehicles more comprehensive than the dilemmatic life-and-death questions of trolley problem-style situations is presented. The paper therefore consists of two interrelated arguments. The first is that autonomous vehicles are currently still a technology in development, and not one that has acquired its definitive shape, meaning the design of both the vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure is open-ended. Design for values is utilized to articulate a path forward, by which engineering ethics should strive to incorporate values into a technology during its development phase. Second, it is argued that nighttime lighting-a critical supporting infrastructure-should be a prima facie consideration for autonomous vehicles during their development phase. It is shown that a reduction in light pollution, and more boldly a better balance of lighting and darkness, can be achieved via the design of future autonomous vehicles. Two case studies are examined (parking lots and highways) through which autonomous vehicles may be designed for “driving in the dark.” Nighttime lighting issues are thus inserted into a broader ethics of autonomous vehicles, while simultaneously introducing questions of autonomous vehicles into debates about light pollution.  
  Address Department Ethics/Philosophy of Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1353-3452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30903370 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2277  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Falchetta, G.; Pachauri, S.; Parkinson, S.; Byers, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A high-resolution gridded dataset to assess electrification in sub-Saharan Africa Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Scientific Data Abbreviated Journal (down) Sci Data  
  Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 110  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Spatially explicit data on electricity access and use are essential for effective policy-making and infrastructure planning in low-income, data-scarce regions. We present and validate a 1-km resolution electricity access dataset covering sub-Saharan Africa built on gridded nighttime light, population, and land cover data. Using light radiance probability distributions, we define electricity consumption tiers for urban and rural areas and estimate the by-tier split of consumers living in electrified areas. The approach provides new insight into the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of electricity access, and a measure of its quality beyond binary access. We find our estimates to be broadly consistent with recently published province- and national-level statistics. Moreover, we demonstrate consistency between the estimated electricity access quality indicators and survey-based consumption levels defined in accordance with the World Bank Multi-Tier Framework. The dataset is readily reproduced and updated using an open-access scientific computing framework. The data and approach can be applied for improving the assessment of least-cost electrification options, and examining links between electricity access and other sustainable development objectives.  
  Address Energy Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schossplatz 1, 2361, Laxenburg, Austria  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2052-4463 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31270329; PMCID:PMC6610126 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2559  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Fluctuations in anthropogenic nighttime lights from satellite imagery for five cities in Niger and Nigeria Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Data Abbreviated Journal (down) Sci Data  
  Volume 5 Issue Pages 180256  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Dynamic measures of human populations are critical for global health management but are often overlooked, largely because they are difficult to quantify. Measuring human population dynamics can be prohibitively expensive in under-resourced communities. Satellite imagery can provide measurements of human populations, past and present, to complement public health analyses and interventions. We used anthropogenic illumination from publicly accessible, serial satellite nighttime images as a quantifiable proxy for seasonal population variation in five urban areas in Niger and Nigeria. We identified population fluxes as the mechanistic driver of regional seasonal measles outbreaks. Our data showed 1) urban illumination fluctuated seasonally, 2) corresponding population fluctuations were sufficient to drive seasonal measles outbreaks, and 3) overlooking these fluctuations during vaccination activities resulted in below-target coverage levels, incapable of halting transmission of the virus. We designed immunization solutions capable of achieving above-target coverage of both resident and mobile populations. Here, we provide detailed data on brightness from 2000-2005 for 5 cities in Niger and Nigeria and detailed methodology for application to other populations.  
  Address WorldPop, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Southampton; Flowminder Foundation, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2052-4463 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30422123; PMCID:PMC6233255 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2769  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Arderne, C.; Zorn, C.; Nicolas, C.; Koks, E.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Predictive mapping of the global power system using open data Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Scientific Data Abbreviated Journal (down) Sci Data  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 19  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Limited data on global power infrastructure makes it difficult to respond to challenges in electricity access and climate change. Although high-voltage data on transmission networks are often available, medium- and low-voltage data are often non-existent or unavailable. This presents a challenge for practitioners working on the electricity access agenda, power sector resilience or climate change adaptation. Using state-of-the-art algorithms in geospatial data analysis, we create a first composite map of the global power system with an open license. We find that 97% of the global population lives within 10 km of a MV line, but with large variations between regions and income levels. We show an accuracy of 75% across our validation set of 14 countries, and we demonstrate the value of these data at both a national and regional level. The results from this study pave the way for improved efforts in electricity modelling and planning and are an important step in tackling the Sustainable Development Goals.  
  Address Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2052-4463 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31941897 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2816  
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