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Author Barrette, T.P.; Pike, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Closed-Course Human Factors Evaluation of Marking and Marker Visibility Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal (down) Transportation Research Record  
  Volume 2673 Issue 10 Pages 840-849  
  Keywords Vision  
  Abstract Raised retroreflective pavement markers (RRPMs) are commonly used to provide nighttime delineation of roadways. Although RRPMs are visible during dry conditions, they provide their greatest benefit during wet-night conditions, when typical pavement markings become flooded and lose their retroreflectivite properties. Naturally, the retroreflectivity of RRPMs degrades over time as a result of traffic, ultraviolet light, precipitation, and roadway maintenance activities. Subsequently, it is necessary to examine the relationship between driver performance and the condition of the RRPMs. To assess visibility relative to RRPM condition, study participants rode in the passenger seat of a vehicle operated by a member of the research team, traveling at approximately 15 mph, for two laps around a closed course. Throughout each lap of the course, nine treatments consisting of RRPMs or preformed pavement marking tape of various retroreflectivity levels diverged from a center line to either the right or left. Participants indicated when they could tell which direction the treatment diverged, which was recorded using a GPS unit. A generalized linear model was estimated on a dataset constructed by pairing the observed distances from various treatments with demographic information about each participant. The analysis indicates the distance at which a particular treatment would be visible, which can then be converted to preview time to assess treatment adequacy for a variety of speeds. The RRPM treatments generally provided adequate preview time for older drivers based on the extant literature; however, the preformed pavement marking tape was less adequate at higher speeds and under overhead lighting.  
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  ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2775  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bassani, M.; Mutani, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of Environmental Lighting Conditions on Operating Speeds on Urban Arterials Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal (down) Transportation Research Record  
  Volume 2298 Issue 1 Pages 78-87  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety  
  Abstract Driver behavior is influenced by environmental lighting conditions on roads; in the literature, many studies report a reduced night–day accident ratio following improvements to lighting on different types of roads, with the results classified by severity and type of accident. Few studies, however, report the influence of lighting conditions on driver speed. This study investigates the principal factors that influence driver speed on arterial roads in Turin, Italy. The aim of this study was to analyze driver speed under different daylight and nighttime lighting conditions. Six arterial roads were selected for observation and the measurement of speeds and illuminance on the pavement surface. The results showed that illuminance, in addition to factors such as lane position, lane width, and the relevant speed limit, should be considered a variable that can influence driver speed. The study used a regression equation to predict operating speeds (V85) on urban arterials; the corresponding sensitivity analysis has made it possible to quantify the effects of the aforementioned variables on operating speed under different environmental lighting conditions.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2872  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Flannagan, M.J.; Sivak, M.; Traube, E.C.; Kojima, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of Overall Low-Beam Intensity on Seeing Distance in the Presence of Glare Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Transportation Human Factors Abbreviated Journal (down) Transportation Human Factors  
  Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 313-330  
  Keywords Public Safety; Vision  
  Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that current low-beam headlamps do not provide adequate seeing distance for safety. Could this situation be improved by providing more total light from low-beam headlamps, leaving the relative distribution of light unchanged? Although such a proposal is probably not the best practical solution, it is important to consider some of the visual consequences of a general increase in light to analyze the overall problem of low-beam headlighting.

In a nighttime field study we measured seeing distance in the presence of glare as a function of headlamp intensity, always varying the intensity of the seeing light and glare light by the same proportion. Increasing intensity by a factor of about 3.8 increased seeing distance by about 17% for both young and old drivers. This result is consistent with predictions from quantitative vision modeling using veiling luminance to represent the disabling effects of glare. We also collected subjective estimates of discomfort glare and found, as expected, that the higher intensities produced substantially more discomfort.

Our findings suggest that, if objective visual performance is the only criterion, there is no clear upper limit to how intense low-beam headlamps should be. However, there may be a level at which people simply will not tolerate the subjectively discomforting effects of glare, or at which glare indirectly affects objective performance through its effects on subjective comfort. Because subjective discomfort, rather than objective visual performance, may be the limiting consideration for setting maximum glare levels, more research should be done to understand the nature and consequences of discomfort glare, including possible effects of subjective comfort on objective visual behavior.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1093-9741 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2127  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bedrosian, T.A.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Timing of light exposure affects mood and brain circuits Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Translational Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal (down) Transl Psychiatry  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages e1017  
  Keywords Human Health; Review  
  Abstract Temporal organization of physiology is critical for human health. In the past, humans experienced predictable periods of daily light and dark driven by the solar day, which allowed for entrainment of intrinsic circadian rhythms to the environmental light-dark cycles. Since the adoption of electric light, however, pervasive exposure to nighttime lighting has blurred the boundaries of day and night, making it more difficult to synchronize biological processes. Many systems are under circadian control, including sleep-wake behavior, hormone secretion, cellular function and gene expression. Circadian disruption by nighttime light perturbs those processes and is associated with increasing incidence of certain cancers, metabolic dysfunction and mood disorders. This review focuses on the role of artificial light at night in mood regulation, including mechanisms through which aberrant light exposure affects the brain. Converging evidence suggests that circadian disruption alters the function of brain regions involved in emotion and mood regulation. This occurs through direct neural input from the clock or indirect effects, including altered neuroplasticity, neurotransmission and clock gene expression. Recently, the aberrant light exposure has been recognized for its health effects. This review summarizes the evidence linking aberrant light exposure to mood.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroendocrinology Group, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2158-3188 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28140399; PMCID:PMC5299389 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2446  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Knaus, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Collecting Notes on Kansas Coleoptera Type Journal Article
  Year 1897 Publication Transactions of the Annual Meetings of the Kansas Academy of Science Abbreviated Journal (down) Transactions of the Annual Meetings of the Kansas Academy of Science  
  Volume 16 Issue Pages 197  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1933-0545 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3149  
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