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Author Debbich, M.
Title Assessing Oil and Non-Oil GDP Growth from Space: An Application to Yemen 2012-17 Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication International Monetary Fund Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 19 Issue 221 Pages
Keywords Economics; Remote Sensing
Abstract This paper uses an untapped source of satellite-recorded nightlights and gas flaring data to characterize the contraction of economic activity in Yemen throughout the ongoing conflict that erupted in 2015. Using estimated nightlights elasticities on a sample of 72 countries for real GDP and 28 countries for oil GDP over 6 years, I derive oil and non-oil GDP growth for Yemen. I show that real GDP contracted by a cumulative 24 percent over 2015-17 against 50 percent according to official figures. I also find that the impact of the conflict has been geographically uneven with economic activity contracting more in some governorates than in others.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2721
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Author Pritchard, S.B.
Title Epilogue. Field notes from the end of the world: Light, darkness, Energy, and endscape in polar night Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Energy History Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 2 Issue Pages
Keywords Darkness; Lighting; Society; Psychology
Abstract This personal essay describes light(s) and darkness(es) in Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) during polar night in January 2019. Drawing on autoethnographic methods, I also seek to describe how I experienced the remarkable lightscapes and darkscapes of the far north during winter. I suggest how the history of energy in Longyearbyen has both shaped and been shaped by the “extreme” light/dark cycle of the high Arctic. In the process, I develop the concept of “endscape” to characterize vestiges of a landscape that has been, and will continue to be, transformed by global climate change, and will eventually disappear. This recent experience illustrates the potential of experiential, reflexive ways of contending with light/dark. It also draws attention to tensions in the academic study of light/dark and the history of energy, and how they play out in practice, in the context of a conference held in a remote location that requires scholars to contribute to the continued extraction of fossil fuels –something that most would otherwise decry. I suggest that Longyearbyen is a useful case study for other endscapes in the early 21st C.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2722
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Author Bhukya, K. A., Ramasubbareddy, S., Govinda, K., & Srinivas, T. A. S.
Title Adaptive Mechanism for Smart Street Lighting System Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Smart Intelligent Computing and Applications Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 160 Issue Pages 69-76
Keywords Lighting
Abstract The adaptive street light has the ability to adapt to the motion of cycles, cars and pedestrians. It uses motion as well as light sensors to detect the traffic and light around. It dims when there is no movement on the road, and is brightened when there is any activity. Smart street lights are very dissimilar from the old methods of lighting. It is an automated system that will be able to automate the streets. The main objective of these lights is to decrease the utilization of power, while no activity is detected on the street. It will be switched ON while there are pedestrians and cars on the street or else they will get dimmed to 20% of the brightness. The proposed approach gives a method to conserve power by using the PIR sensors to sense the incoming traffic and hence turning ON a cluster of lights surrounding the traffic. As the traffic is passing by, the street lights left behind will dim on its own. Hence, a lot of power can be conserved. Also, during the day time when there is no need of light the LDR sensor will sense the light and the light will remain switched OFF. This smart street light system comes under the domain of smart city.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2723
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Author Wei, Y., Chen, Z., Xiu, C., Yu, B., & Liu, H.
Title Siting of Dark Sky Reserves in China Based on Multi-source Spatial Data and Multiple Criteria Evaluation Method Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Chinese Geographical Science Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume Issue Pages 1-13
Keywords Conservation; Skyglow; Remote Sensing
Abstract With the rapid development of population and urbanization and the progress of lighting technology, the influence of artificial light sources has increased. In this context, the problem of light pollution has attracted wide attention. Previous studies have revealed that light pollution can affect biological living environments, human physical and mental health, astronomical observations and many other aspects. Therefore, organizations internationally have begun to advocate for measures to prevent light pollution, many of which are recognized by the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA). In addition to improving public awareness, legal protections, technical treatments and other means, the construction of Dark Sky Reserves (DSR) has proven to be an effective preventive measure. So far, as a pioneer practice in this field, the IDA has identified 11 DSRs worldwide. Based on the DA requirements for DSRs, this paper utilizes NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data and other multi-source spatial data to analyze possible DSR sites in China. The land of China was divided into more than ten thousand 30 km × 30 km fishnets, and constraint and suitable conditions were designated, respectively, as light and cloud conditions, and scale, traffic and attractiveness conditions. Using a multiple criteria evaluation, 1443 fishnets were finally selected as most suitable sites for the construction of DSRs. Results found that less than 25% of China is not subject to light pollution, and less than 13% is suitable for DSR construction, primarily in western and northern areas, including Tibet, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu and Inner Mongolia.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2724
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Author Mcmunn, M. S., Yang, L. H., Ansalmo, A., Bucknam, K., Claret, M., Clay, C., Cox, K., Dungey, D. D., Jones, A., & Kim, A. Y.
Title Artificial Light Increases Local Predator Abundance, Predation Rates, and Herbivory Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Environmental Entomology Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 48 Issue 6 Pages 1331–1339
Keywords Animals; Predation; Arthropods; Ecology
Abstract Human activity is rapidly increasing the radiance and geographic extent of artificial light at night (ALAN) leading to alterations in the development, behavior, and physiological state of many organisms. A limited number of community-scale studies investigating the effects of ALAN have allowed for spatial aggregation through positive phototaxis, the commonly observed phenomenon of arthropod movement toward light. We performed an open field study (without restricted arthropod access) to determine the effects of ALAN on local arthropod community composition, plant traits, and local herbivory and predation rates. We found strong positive phototaxis in 10 orders of arthropods, with increased (159% higher) overall arthropod abundance under ALAN compared to unlit controls. The arthropod community under ALAN was more diverse and contained a higher proportion of predaceous arthropods (15% vs 8%). Predation of immobilized flies occurred 3.6 times faster under ALAN; this effect was not observed during the day. Contrary to expectations, we also observed a 6% increase in herbivory under ALAN. Our results highlight the importance of open experimental field studies in determining community-level effects of ALAN.
Address Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA; mmcmunn(at)gmail.com
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2725
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