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Author Manning, R., Newman, P., Barber, J., Monz, C., Hallo, J., & Lawson, S. openurl 
  Title Principles for Studying and Managing Natural Quiet and Natural Darkness in National Parks and Other Protected Areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The George Wright Forum Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 35 Issue 3 Pages 350-362  
  Keywords Conservation; Planning; Regulation  
  Abstract A substantial body of research on natural quiet and natural darkness in national

parks, and protected areas more broadly, has been reported in the scientific and professional literature in recent years. However, this literature is widely scattered over many academic and professional journals that cover both the natural and social sciences. To help integrate and synthesize this body of work, we surveyed this diverse literature and collected representative examples in a book (Manning et al. 2018). We conclude our book with a series of principles

that we have distilled to help guide park managers to protect natural quiet and natural darkness. This paper presents those principles.

Much of our book focuses on national parks in the United States, and in the remainder of this paper the phrase “the national parks” refers to them. But we feel that the principles we have derived from our review of the scientific and professional literature on natural quiet and natural darkness apply equally well to a variety of parks and protected areas in the United States and elsewhere.

Natural quiet is generally defined as the sounds of nature uninterrupted by human-caused noise, and natural darkness is darkness unaffected by human-caused light. It is important to note that natural quiet and natural darkness do not necessarily mean absolute quiet or darkness, as the natural world often generates sounds of its own (e.g., birds calling, wind blowing,

rivers rushing) and has sources of illumination (e.g., the glow of celestial bodies and the fluorescence of some plants and animals).
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2297  
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Author Jørgensen, L. D., Tambo, T., & Xydis, G. doi  openurl
  Title An efficiency evaluation of radar‐based obstruction lights controlling at a wind turbine test site Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Wind Energy Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Planning  
  Abstract In this study, an obstruction lights controlling (OLC) system based on a Terma SCANTER 5000 radar has been installed at a test centre for large wind turbines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the OLC system and to improve this efficiency by introducing new technological features. Once the first assessment had been carried out, new software with improved tracking functionalities was installed to the radar. With the new software, a second assessment was made to compare the new performance to the old one. To analyse the tracks, geographic information system (GIS) tools have been used. A new MATLAB script was developed to automate the assessment as well as to gather data on the tracks. These data sets were used to improve the system performance by introducing a radar cross section (RCS)/speed filter. The outcome of the study is a filter that can be implemented on the radar system to improve the efficiency of the system and reduce the time that obstruction lights need to be on for by 62.59%, without compromising the integrity of the system.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2298  
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Author Skinner, N., & Bullough, J. doi  openurl
  Title Influence of LED Spectral Characteristics on Glare Recovery Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0845 Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting; Public Safety  
  Abstract Headlight glare is a major concern of the driving public. In the past couple of years there have been concerns expressed about the use of light emitting diode (LED) lighting technologies and possible impacts LEDs may have on people, including circadian disruption, retinal hazards, and glare. Under typical use cases, vehicle headlight exposures are insufficient to cause circadian disruption or retinal damage, but can result in disability and discomfort glare, as well as glare recovery. In general, white LEDs used for illumination have greater short-wavelength content than halogen lamps used in many headlights, and short wavelengths have been implicated in visual discomfort from bright lights at night. Previous literature is inconsistent regarding whether the spectral (color) content of a glare source affects the amount of recovery time needed to see objects, following exposure to a bright light such as a vehicle headlight. Warm and cool white LEDs were used as glare sources in the present study. They were energized and exposed to study participants at one of two illuminances (low, high) for either 3 or 6 seconds, after which participants were asked to identify the orientation of a Landolt ring target located on a display screen behind the glare source. Identification times were unaffected by the spectral content of the LED, but were correlated with the “dosage” of light from the glare sources, defined as the product of illuminance and duration. Although cool white LEDs will tend to be judged as creating more discomfort than warm white LEDs, they do not result in longer glare recovery times under the range of conditions used in this study.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2299  
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Author Sierro, A., & Erhardt, A. doi  openurl
  Title Light pollution hampers recolonization of revitalised European Nightjar habitats in the Valais (Swiss Alps) Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Ornithology Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Conservation  
  Abstract Increasing light emissions caused by human activities have been recognized as a major threat for nocturnal animals. In Switzerland, the European Nightjar is a rare bird, decreasing in numbers since the 1970s, and is therefore highly threatened. The last breeding population occurs in the canton Valais. Initial expert-based conservation measures on formerly inhabited breeding sites were successful until 2000, however recent additional measures have failed. Nightjars are highly sensitive to light due to their special retina adapted to living in semi-darkness. We hypothesized that food availability, mainly moths, is not a critical limiting factor, but that artificial light emissions prevent successful foraging as well as recolonizing revitalised breeding habitats of the nightjar. To test this hypothesis, we used light trapping data of moths from the last 30 years to evaluate food availability and compared light emission on abandoned versus still-occupied breeding sites. Abundance of larger moths did not change significantly over the last 30 years, and smaller moths even increased in abandoned as well as in still-occupied nightjar habitats. However, light emission was two to five times higher in abandoned compared to still-occupied sites. These results suggest that increasing light emission during recent decades has exceeded tolerable levels for this highly specialized night bird. Authorities of the canton Valais should therefore order a reduction in light emission near nightjar habitats by replacing bulbs currently in use with customized LED or broad-spectrum lamps low in white and blue light, and assign remaining nightjar habitats as areas of complete nocturnal darkness, thereby also protecting other threatened nocturnal animals, including moths.  
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  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2300  
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Author Omar, N. S., & Ismal, A. doi  openurl
  Title Night Lights and Economic Performance in Egypt Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Advances in Economics and Business Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 69-81  
  Keywords Economics; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract This paper, to the best of my knowledge, is the first to estimate the association between Nighttime Lights (NTL) and real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at the national level, using sub-national GDP data for the 27 Egyptian governorates over FY08-FY13. The study finds that NTL has a positive and statistically significant

correlation with GDP at the sub-national and national levels. Hence, NTL can measure and predict GDP in Egypt, at the national and sub-national levels. These findings affirm most previous research that NTL could be a good proxy for GDP when official data are unavailable or time infrequent in developing countries.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2301  
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