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Author Zhe Song and Xiaoming Li url  openurl
  Title Hazards, Causes and Legal Governance Measures of China's Urban Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Nature Environment and Pollution Technology Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 16 Issue 3 Pages 975-980  
  Keywords Regulation  
  Abstract Urban light pollution, which poses a threat to people’s production, life, and physical and mental health, is becoming increasingly serious and gradually forms a new type of environmental pollution. In order to further analyse the hazards and causes of China’s urban light pollution and explore its legal governance measures, this study reviews foreign literature on hazards and causes of urban light pollution, summarizes the types and causes of the pollution in China, and provides specific control measures from the perspective of legal governance. Research results in the country and abroad show that light pollution is caused by development, which has a serious negative impact on the normal life of urban residents. The hazards of urban light pollution are manifested in four aspects, such as damaging human health, affecting the natural ecological environment, affecting normal operation of urban traffic, and causing serious waste of energy. Urban light pollution is caused by the lack of systematized urban building light source design work, excessive use of electronic products with the development of science and technology, weak public awareness of environmental protection, and the delay of laws and regulations. Some legal measures to control light pollution are presented as follows: Perfecting the administrative system and environmental supervision system in legislation, innovating the legislation system of light pollution prevention, formulating strict civil liability for light pollution, and further formulating a single law on light pollution control. The results of this study have important reference value for taking measures predictably to avoid the occurrence of light pollution during urban construction design, for the macro-control of urban planning and management departments, and for promoting the concept of urban environmental protection and energy conservation and sustainable urban development.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1748  
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Author S Fotios, J Uttley url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminance required to detect a pavement obstacle of critical size Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 50 Issue Pages 390-404  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting  
  Abstract This paper investigates the illuminance needed to detect trip hazards for pedestrians walking after dark. In previous work, it was assumed that the critical obstacle height is 25 mm: further review of accident data and foot clearance data suggests instead that 10 mm is the critical height. Eye tracking records suggest a tendency for obstacles to be detected approximately 3.4 m ahead. Interpretation of obstacle detection data suggests horizontal photopic illuminances of up to 0.9 lux are required for peripheral detection of a 10 mm obstacle 3.4 m ahead, according to the scotopic/photopic ratio of the lighting and the age of the observer.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1765  
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Author Fotios, S., Price, T url  openurl
  Title Road lighting and accidents: Why lighting is not the only answer Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Lighting Journal Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 82 Issue 5 Pages 22-26  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety  
  Abstract Tony Price and Steve Fotios point out that while road lighting can be a significant counter measure to accidents, and that higher levels might help, the presence of road lighting does not guarantee all accidents will be avoided.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1767  
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Author S Fotios, C Cheal, S Fox, url  doi
openurl 
  Title The transition between lit and unlit sections of road and detection of driving hazards after dark Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 51 Issue 2 Pages 243-261  
  Keywords Vision; Public Safety; Lighting; Planning  
  Abstract An experiment to investigate peripheral detection performance during a driver’s transition between lit and unlit sections of road was undertaken. The results suggest that when a driver moves from a lit to an unlit section of road their detection performance decreases almost immediately to that expected for the conditions of the unlit section and that there is no significant change in the subsequent 20-minute period. Tests were conducted at three luminances (0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 cd/m2): while an increase from 0.1 to 1.0 cd/m2 improved detection, a further increase to 2.0 cd/m2 did not. Lighting of two S/P ratios (0.65, 1.40) was examined at 1.0 cd/m2: this did not suggest an effect on detection performance. Taken together, these results suggest that, in the current context, visual performance reached a plateau at 1.0 cd/m2.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1769  
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Author Zachary M. Cravens, Veronica A. Brown, Timothy J. Divoll, Justin G. Boyles url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminating prey selection in an insectivorous bat community, exposed to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 705-713  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract 1.Light pollution has been increasing around the globe and threatens to disturb natural rhythms of wildlife species. Artificial light impacts the behaviour of insectivorous bats in numerous ways, including foraging behaviour, which may in turn lead to altered prey selection.

2.In a manipulative field experiment, we collected faecal samples from six species of insectivorous bats in naturally dark and artificially lit conditions, and identified prey items using molecular methods to investigate effects of light pollution on prey selection.

3.Proportional differences of identified prey were not consistent and appeared to be species specific. Red bats, little brown bats, and gray bats exhibited expected increases in moths at lit sites. Beetle-specialist big brown bats had a sizeable increase in beetle consumption around lights, while tri-colored bats and evening bats showed little change in moth consumption between experimental conditions. Dietary overlap was high between experimental conditions within each species, and dietary breadth only changed significantly between experimental conditions in one species, the little brown bat.

4.Policy implications. Our results, building on others, demonstrate that bat-insect interactions may be more nuanced than the common assertion that moth consumption increases around lights. They highlight the need for a greater mechanistic understanding of bat-light interactions to predict which species will be most affected by light pollution. Given differences in bat and insect communities, we advocate biologists, land stewards, and civil planners work collaboratively to determine lighting solutions that minimize changes in foraging behaviour of species in the local bat community. Such efforts may allow stakeholders to more effectively craft management strategies to minimize unnatural shifts in prey selection caused by artificial lights.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1783  
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