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Author BjÖRnberg, T.K.S.; Wilbur, K.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Copepod Phototaxis And Vertical Migration Influenced By Xanthene Dyes Type Journal Article
  Year 1968 Publication The Biological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal The Biological Bulletin  
  Volume 134 Issue 3 Pages 398-410  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) 1. Phototaxis of the copepods Paracalanus crassirostris, Calanopia americana, and Acartia lillijeborgi has been measured by determining the percentage of a population moving toward or away from a point source of light per unit time. Quantitative differences in positive phototaxis were found between the species. Photopositive responses differed during the day and night in Acartia but not in Paracalanus and Calanopia.

2. Rhodamine B (8.4 x 10-6 M) brought about the following effects: (a) Locomotor activity was reversibly inhibited in all species. (b) Photopositive responses were increased in Calanopia and Acartia but decreased in Paracalanus. (c) The difference between day and night responses to a point source of light was abolished in Acartia and induced in Calanopia. (d) Somersaulting was induced in Paracalanus but not in the other species.

3. Pyronine B (8.4 x 10-6 M) also decreased locomotor activity. Fluorescein sodium (1.1 x 10-5 M and 1.1 x 10-4 M) was without significant effect.

4. Paracalanus, Calanopia, and Acartia exhibited characteristically distinct diurnal migratory cycles in vertical cylinders, which correlated well with behavior in natural waters. Calanopia and Acartia migrated to the bottom in the daylight whereas Paracalanus and young forms of Acartia were widely distributed vertically during daylight. Specimens of Calanopia and Acartia kept in the dark did not migrate.

5. The effects of rhodamine B (8.4 x 10-6 M) on vertical migration depended upon species, developmental stage, and time of day. In general, rhodamine increased the concentration of animals at the surface at night and at the bottom in daylight. Fluorescein sodium (1.1 x 10-5 M and 1.1 x 10-4 M) had little effect on vertical migration.

6. The effectiveness of rhodamine B and pyronine B is probably related to the presence of diethylamine groups lacking in fluorescein.
 
  Address  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3185 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2469  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sanotra, G.S.; Lund, J.D.; Vestergaard, K.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Influence of light-dark schedules and stocking density on behaviour, risk of leg problems and occurrence of chronic fear in broilers Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication British Poultry Science Abbreviated Journal Br Poult Sci  
  Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 344-354  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) 1. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the effect of light-dark schedules on the walking ability, the risk of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) as well as the duration of tonic immobility (TI) reactions in commercial broiler flocks and (2) the effect of a daily dark period and reduced density on the behaviour of broiler chickens. 2. Experiment 1. Group 1 had a 2 to 8 h daily dark period from 2 to 26 d of age (light-dark programme A) at a stocking density of 28.4 chicks/m2. Group 2 had 8 h of darkness daily from 2 to 38 d of age (light-dark programme B) at 24 chicks/m2. The control group had 24 h continuous light at 28.4 chicks/m2. 3. Experiment 2. Behaviour was studied with and without a daily 8 h dark period and at high (30 chicks/m2) and low (18 chicks/m2) stocking densities. 4. Programme B reduced the prevalence of impaired walking ability, corresponding to gait score > 2, when compared with controls. The effect on walking ability corresponding to gait score > 0 approached significance. 5. Both light-dark programmes reduced the occurrence of TD. Programme B (combined with reduced stocking density), however, had the greater effect. 6. Both light-dark programmes reduced the duration of TI, compared with controls (mean = 426 s) Programme B resulted in a larger reduction (alpha = -156.9 s) than programme A (alpha = -117.0). 7. The proportions of chicks drinking, eating, pecking, scratching, standing and performing vertical wing-shakes increased--both when the 8 h dark period and the reduced stocking density were applied separately and in combination (experiment 2). 8. For all behaviours, except standing, the effect of the dark period was largest in broilers kept at the high stocking density (d 40).  
  Address Department of Animal Science and Animal Health, Division of Ethology and Health, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Groennegaardsvej 8, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark. sgs@kvl.dk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0007-1668 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12195793 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2169  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Weiss, C.M. openurl 
  Title The effect of illumination and stage of tide on the attachment of barnacle cyprids Type Journal Article
  Year 1947 Publication The Biological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 93 Issue 3 Pages 240-249  
  Keywords animals  
  Abstract (up) 1. The cyprid larvae of Balanus improvisus were found to settle in a diurnal rhythm with maximum numbers attaching during daylight hours.

2. No consistent pattern of vertical distribution of the cyprids was found.

3. The normal diurnal cycle in rate of attachment of barnacle cyprids was nullified by the use of artificial illumination over the collecting surfaces at night.

4. The magnitude of the cyprid collection on the artificially illuminated surfaces was equal to the collection on the sun-illuminated surfaces in daylight.

5. The intensity of artificial light necessary to produce large cyprid attachments at night was of an order as low as 1 footcandle at the water surface.

6. No correlation was found between the quantity of artificial light at night and the numbers of cyprids attached.

7. The highest rate of cyprid attachment relative to the phase of the tide was found to occur when the waters of upper Biscayne Bay were sampled at the collecting station. This body of water reached the sampling station at low tide and was characterized by a high cyprid population.
 
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  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2464  
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Author Zachary M. Cravens, Veronica A. Brown, Timothy J. Divoll, Justin G. Boyles url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminating prey selection in an insectivorous bat community, exposed to artificial light at night Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 705-713  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract (up) 1.Light pollution has been increasing around the globe and threatens to disturb natural rhythms of wildlife species. Artificial light impacts the behaviour of insectivorous bats in numerous ways, including foraging behaviour, which may in turn lead to altered prey selection.

2.In a manipulative field experiment, we collected faecal samples from six species of insectivorous bats in naturally dark and artificially lit conditions, and identified prey items using molecular methods to investigate effects of light pollution on prey selection.

3.Proportional differences of identified prey were not consistent and appeared to be species specific. Red bats, little brown bats, and gray bats exhibited expected increases in moths at lit sites. Beetle-specialist big brown bats had a sizeable increase in beetle consumption around lights, while tri-colored bats and evening bats showed little change in moth consumption between experimental conditions. Dietary overlap was high between experimental conditions within each species, and dietary breadth only changed significantly between experimental conditions in one species, the little brown bat.

4.Policy implications. Our results, building on others, demonstrate that bat-insect interactions may be more nuanced than the common assertion that moth consumption increases around lights. They highlight the need for a greater mechanistic understanding of bat-light interactions to predict which species will be most affected by light pollution. Given differences in bat and insect communities, we advocate biologists, land stewards, and civil planners work collaboratively to determine lighting solutions that minimize changes in foraging behaviour of species in the local bat community. Such efforts may allow stakeholders to more effectively craft management strategies to minimize unnatural shifts in prey selection caused by artificial lights.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1783  
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Author Cabrera-Cruz, S.A.; Smolinsky, J.A.; McCarthy, K.P.; Buler, J.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urban areas affect flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol  
  Volume 88 Issue 12 Pages 1873-1887  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; Aeroecology; bird migration; flight altitude; light pollution; radar; urbanization  
  Abstract (up) 1.Urban areas affect terrestrial ecological processes and local weather, but we know little about their effect on aerial ecological processes. 2.Here, we identify urban from non-urban areas based on the intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the landscape, and, along with weather covariates, evaluate the effect of urbanization on flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds. 3.Birds are attracted to ALAN, hence we predicted that altitudes would be lower over urban than over non-urban areas. However, other factors associated with urbanization may also affect flight altitudes. For example, surface temperature and terrain roughness are higher in urban areas, increasing air turbulence, height of the boundary layer, and affecting local winds. 4.We used data from nine weather surveillance radars in the eastern US to estimate altitudes at five quantiles of the vertical distribution of birds migrating at night over urban and non-urban areas during five consecutive spring and autumn migration seasons. We fit generalized linear mixed models by season for each of the five quantiles of bird flight altitude and their differences between urban and non-urban areas. 5.After controlling for other environmental variables and contrary to our prediction, we found that birds generally fly higher over urban areas compared to rural areas in spring, and marginally higher at the mid layers of the vertical distribution in autumn. We also identified a small interaction effect between urbanization and crosswind speed, and between urbanization and surface air temperature, on flight altitudes. We also found that the difference in flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds between urban and non-urban areas varied among radars and seasons, but were consistently higher over urban areas throughout the years sampled. 6.Our results suggest that the effects of urbanization on wildlife extend into the aerosphere, and are complex, stressing the need of understanding the influence of anthropogenic factors on airspace habitat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, University of Delaware, Delaware, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31330569 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2604  
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