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Author Garstang, R.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-sky brightness at observatories and sites. Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication Publ Astron Soc Pac Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 101 Issue Pages 306-329  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract (up) A model previously constructed for night-sky brightness calculations has been modified to allow for the curvature of the earth. The model has been applied to calculate the brightness at the following observatories: Mount Wilson, Lick, Mount Palomar, Kitt Peak, Sacramento Peak, Mauna Kea, McDonald, San Pedro Martir, Mount Hopkins, Mount Lemmon, Lowell (Mars Hill), Lowell (Anderson Mesa), Fick, Iowa, Van Vleck, David Dunlap, Anglo-Australian, Haute Provence, and Cerro Tololo. Calculations have also been carried out for the following prospective observatory sites: Junipero Serra, Mount Graham, Charleston Peak, Wheeler Peak, Miller Peak, San Benito Mountain, Lowell (Hutch Mountain), Lowell (Saddle Mountain), and South Baldy (New Mexico). The model is extended to calculate magnitudes in the B photometric band.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 559  
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Author Stone, J.E.; Phillips, A.J.K.; Ftouni, S.; Magee, M.; Howard, M.; Lockley, S.W.; Sletten, T.L.; Anderson, C.; Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Postnova, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Generalizability of A Neural Network Model for Circadian Phase Prediction in Real-World Conditions Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 11001  
  Keywords Human Health; Instrumentation  
  Abstract (up) A neural network model was previously developed to predict melatonin rhythms accurately from blue light and skin temperature recordings in individuals on a fixed sleep schedule. This study aimed to test the generalizability of the model to other sleep schedules, including rotating shift work. Ambulatory wrist blue light irradiance and skin temperature data were collected in 16 healthy individuals on fixed and habitual sleep schedules, and 28 rotating shift workers. Artificial neural network models were trained to predict the circadian rhythm of (i) salivary melatonin on a fixed sleep schedule; (ii) urinary aMT6s on both fixed and habitual sleep schedules, including shift workers on a diurnal schedule; and (iii) urinary aMT6s in rotating shift workers on a night shift schedule. To determine predicted circadian phase, center of gravity of the fitted bimodal skewed baseline cosine curve was used for melatonin, and acrophase of the cosine curve for aMT6s. On a fixed sleep schedule, the model predicted melatonin phase to within +/- 1 hour in 67% and +/- 1.5 hours in 100% of participants, with mean absolute error of 41 +/- 32 minutes. On diurnal schedules, including shift workers, the model predicted aMT6s acrophase to within +/- 1 hour in 66% and +/- 2 hours in 87% of participants, with mean absolute error of 63 +/- 67 minutes. On night shift schedules, the model predicted aMT6s acrophase to within +/- 1 hour in 42% and +/- 2 hours in 53% of participants, with mean absolute error of 143 +/- 155 minutes. Prediction accuracy was similar when using either 1 (wrist) or 11 skin temperature sensor inputs. These findings demonstrate that the model can predict circadian timing to within +/- 2 hours for the vast majority of individuals on diurnal schedules, using blue light and a single temperature sensor. However, this approach did not generalize to night shift conditions.  
  Address School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31358781; PMCID:PMC6662750 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2667  
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Author Roman, M.O.; Stokes, E.C.; Shrestha, R.; Wang, Z.; Schultz, L.; Carlo, E.A.S.; Sun, Q.; Bell, J.; Molthan, A.; Kalb, V.; Ji, C.; Seto, K.C.; McClain, S.N.; Enenkel, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Satellite-based assessment of electricity restoration efforts in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages e0218883  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract (up) A real-time understanding of the distribution and duration of power outages after a major disaster is a precursor to minimizing their harmful consequences. Here, we develop an approach for using daily satellite nighttime lights data to create spatially disaggregated power outage estimates, tracking electricity restoration efforts after disasters strike. In contrast to existing utility data, these estimates are independent, open, and publicly-available, consistently measured across regions that may be serviced by several different power companies, and inclusive of distributed power supply (off-grid systems). We apply the methodology in Puerto Rico following Hurricane Maria, which caused the longest blackout in US history. Within all of the island's settlements, we track outages and recovery times, and link these measures to census-based demographic characteristics of residents. Our results show an 80% decrease in lights, in total, immediately after Hurricane Maria. During the recovery, a disproportionate share of long-duration power failures (> 120 days) occurred in rural municipalities (41% of rural municipalities vs. 29% of urban municipalities), and in the northern and eastern districts. Unexpectedly, we also identify large disparities in electricity recovery between neighborhoods within the same urban area, based primarily on the density of housing. For many urban areas, poor residents, the most vulnerable to increased mortality and morbidity risks from power losses, shouldered the longest outages because they lived in less dense, detached housing where electricity restoration lagged. The approach developed in this study demonstrates the potential of satellite-based estimates of power recovery to improve the real-time monitoring of disaster impacts, globally, at a spatial resolution that is actionable for the disaster response community.  
  Address Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31251791 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2564  
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Author Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Characterizing the zenithal night sky brightness in large territories: how many samples per square kilometre are needed? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 473 Issue 3 Pages 4164-4173  
  Keywords Instrumentation; atmospheric effects; light pollution; numerical methods; photometry  
  Abstract (up) A recurring question arises when trying to characterize, by means of measurements or theoretical calculations, the zenithal night sky brightness throughout a large territory: how many samples per square kilometre are needed? The optimum sampling distance should allow reconstructing, with sufficient accuracy, the continuous zenithal brightness map across the whole region, whilst at the same time avoiding unnecessary and redundant oversampling. This paper attempts to provide some tentative answers to this issue, using two complementary tools: the luminance structure function and the Nyquist–Shannon spatial sampling theorem. The analysis of several regions of the world, based on the data from the New world atlas of artificial night sky brightness, suggests that, as a rule of thumb, about one measurement per square kilometre could be sufficient for determining the zenithal night sky brightness of artificial origin at any point in a region to within ±0.1 magV arcsec–2 (in the root-mean-square sense) of its true value in the Johnson–Cousins V band. The exact reconstruction of the zenithal night sky brightness maps from samples taken at the Nyquist rate seems to be considerably more demanding.  
  Address 1Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain; salva.bara(at)usc.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford Academic Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2164  
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Author Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Black-body luminance and magnitudes per square arcsecond in the Johnson-Cousins BVR photometric bands Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Photonics Letters of Poland Abbreviated Journal Photon. Lett. Pl.  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 63  
  Keywords Skyglow; night sky brightness; luminance; photometric  
  Abstract (up) A relevant amount of light pollution studies deal with the unwanted visual effects of artificial light at night, including the anthropogenic luminance of the sky that hinders the observation of the celestial bodies which are a main target of ground-based astrophysical research, and a key asset of the intangible heritage of humankind. Most quantitative measurements and numerical models, however, evaluate the anthropogenic sky radiance in any of the standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRI photometric bands, generally in the V one. Since the Johnson-Cousins V band is not identical with the visual CIE V-lambda used to assess luminance, the conversion between these two photometric systems turns out to be spectrum-dependent. Given its interest for practical applications, in this Letter we provide the framework to perform this conversion and the transformation constants for black-body spectra of different absolute temperatures.  
  Address Dept. Física Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Photonics Society of Poland Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2080-2242 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2685  
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