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Author Zhang, H.; Yan, K.; Sui, L.; Nie, J.; Cui, K.; Liu, J.; Zhang, H.; Yang, X.; Lu, K.; Liang, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Constant light exposure causes oocyte meiotic defects and quality deterioration in mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 115467  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) Artificial light at night (ALAN) exposes us to prolonged illumination, that adversely affects female reproduction. However, it remains to be clarified how prolonged light exposure affects oocyte meiotic maturation and quality. To this end, we exposed female mice to a constant light (CL) of 250 lux for different durations. Our findings showed that CL exposure for 7 weeks reduced the oocyte maturation rate. Meanwhile, CL exposure caused greater abnormalities in spindle assembly and chromosome alignment and a higher rate of oocyte aneuploidy than the regular light dark cycle. CL exposure also induced oxidative stress and caused mitochondrial dysfunction, which resulted in oocyte apoptosis and autophagy. Notably, our results showed that CL exposure reduced the levels of α-tubulin acetylation, DNA methylation at 5mC, RNA methylation at m6A and histone methylation at H3K4me2 but increased the levels of histone methylation at H3K27me2 in oocytes. In summary, our findings demonstrate that constant bright light exposure causes oocyte meiotic defects and reduces cytoplasmic quality. These results extend the current understanding of ALAN-mediated defects in female reproduction.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3101  
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Author Kernbach, M. E., Cassone, V. M., Unnasch, T. R., & Martin, L. B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Broad-spectrum light pollution suppresses melatonin and increases West Nile virus–induced mortality in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) Artificial light at night (ALAN) has become a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for both humans and wildlife. Although many negative impacts of ALAN on human health have been identified, the consequences for infectious disease dynamics are largely unexplored. With the increase in popularity of energy efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the effects of spectral composition of ALAN have also come into question. Previous studies showed that exposure to low levels of incandescent ALAN extended the infectious period of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) infected with West Nile virus (WNV) without affecting mortality rates, thus increasing the pathogen initial reproductive rate (R0) by ~41%. Here, we asked whether exposure to broad-spectrum (3000 K [Kelvin; unit of color temperature]) ALAN suppressed melatonin, a hormone implicated in ALAN-induced physiological consequences, in House Sparrows. We then asked whether amber-hue bulbs (1800 K) could ameliorate the effects of WNV on individual sparrows, and whether broad-spectrum or blue-rich bulbs (3000 K and 5000 K, respectively) could exacerbate them. We found that exposure to low intensity (~5 lux) broad-spectrum (3000 K) ALAN significantly suppressed melatonin levels throughout the night. Second, we found that exposure to broad-spectrum and blue-rich (3000 + 5000 K) lights did not affect WNV viremia but did increase WNV-induced mortality. Conversely, birds exposed to amber-hue (1800 K) ALAN had lower viremia and mortality rates similar to controls (i.e. natural light conditions). This study demonstrates that ALAN affects melatonin regulation in birds, but this effect, as well as ALAN influences on infectious disease responses, can be ameliorated by particular lighting technologies.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2967  
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Author Zhang, X.; Yang, W.; Liang, W.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Intensity dependent disruptive effects of light at night on activation of the HPG axis of tree sparrows (Passer montanus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution  
  Volume 249 Issue Pages 904-909  
  Keywords Animals; Birds; hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; HPG axis; wild tree sparrow; Passer montanus; endocrine  
  Abstract (up) Artificial light at night (ALAN) has become increasingly recognized as a disruptor of the reproductive endocrine process and behavior of wild birds. However, there is no evidence that ALAN directly disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and no information on the effects of different ALAN intensities on birds. We experimentally tested whether ALAN affects reproductive endocrine activation in the HPG axis of birds, and whether this effect is related to the intensity of ALAN, in wild tree sparrows (Passer montanus). Forty-eight adult female birds were randomly assigned to four groups. They were first exposed to a short light photoperiod (8 h light and 16 h dark per day) for 20 days, then exposed to a long light photoperiod (16 h light and 8 h dark per day) to initiate the reproductive endocrine process. During these two kinds of photoperiod treatments, the four groups of birds were exposed to 0, 85, 150, and 300 lux light in the dark phase (night) respectively. The expression of the reproductive endocrine activation related TSH-β, Dio2 and GnRH-I gene was significantly higher in birds exposed to 85 lux light at night, and significantly lower in birds exposed to 150 and 300 lux, relative to the 0 lux control. The birds exposed to 85 lux had higher peak values of plasma LH and estradiol concentration and reached the peak earlier than birds exposed to 0, 150, or 300 lux did. The lower gene expression of birds exposed to 150 and 300 lux reduced their peak LH and estradiol values, but did not delay the timing of these peaks compared to the control group. These results reveal that low intensity ALAN accelerates the activation of the reproductive endocrine process in the HPG axis, whereas high intensity ALAN retards it.  
  Address College of Life and Environment Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing, 100081, China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2281  
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Author Maggi, E.; Serôdio, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial Light at Night: A New Challenge in Microphytobenthos Research Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Frontiers in Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Commentary; Plants  
  Abstract (up) Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been recently recognized as a globally widespread anthropogenic disturbance, characterized by different intensities and spectra, as well as spatial and temporal variability. Among marine organisms, those living on coastal areas are particularly exposed to artificial light. Some recent studies anticipated a potential for influences of ALAN on microphytobenthos (MPB) on rocky shores, either direct or indirectly mediated by trophic relationships. Here we emphasize the need for further investigations in different habitats, as well as on synergistic interferences with other stressors already impinging on coastal areas. The study of effects of ALAN poses new challenges in MPB research, including those related to the use of instruments for measuring both the light environment and the functioning of microbial photoautotrophs at night, and to the development of common monitoring approaches and manipulative experiments.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2935  
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Author Maggi, E.; Bertocci, I.; Benedetti-Cecchi, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution enhances temporal variability of photosynthetic activity in mature and developing biofilm Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Hydrobiologia Abbreviated Journal Hydrobiologia  
  Volume 847 Issue 7 Pages 1793-1802  
  Keywords Plants; Ecology  
  Abstract (up) Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been recently recognized as a threat for aquatic systems, but a comprehensive knowledge of its effects is still lacking. A fundamental question is whether and how ALAN might affect temporal variability of communities, thus undermining the stability of mature assemblages or influencing the colonization process. Here we investigated the role of ALAN on temporal variability of total biomass and maximum photosynthetic efficiency of marine autotrophic biofilms colonizing Mediterranean high-shore rock surfaces while controlling for density of their main grazers. Results showed stability in total biomass, but an increase in maximum photosynthetic efficiency from unlit to lit conditions, which suggested a temporal change in composition and/or abundance of different taxa within mature assemblages. The effect was weaker during the colonization process; in this case, density of grazers acted in the opposite direction of ALAN. We suggest that the addition of light at times when it would not be naturally present may affect the temporal variability of a variety of functioning in aquatic systems, depending on species-specific sensitivities to ALAN within microbial assemblages and/or indirect effects mediated by their consumers. We highlight to further investigate the role of this emergent topic in aquatic ecology.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0018-8158 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3146  
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