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Author Rosewater, V.
Title Cost Statistics of Public Electric Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 1893 Publication Publications of the American Statistical Association Abbreviated Journal
Volume 3 Issue 21 Pages 293-303
Keywords Economics
Abstract (up) Among the various papers published upon the subject of municipial control of public electric lighting the showing made by the statistics of cost is always an important factor. Whatever be the point of view of the writers, they seem to present their own figures and yet to arrive at essentially inconsistent results. What I propose to do here, then, is simply to touch upon a few of the limitations which must be borne in mind by anyone who wishes to give these statistics their due scientific weight.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2474
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Wallner, S.; Solano-Lamphar, H.A.
Title An asymptotic formula for skyglow modelling over a large territory Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 485 Issue 2 Pages 2214-2224
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract (up) An analytical framework to predict skyglow due to distant sources is presented, which can be applied to model sky brightness from the zenith toward the horizon along a vertical plane crossing the hemisphere in the azimuthal position of a light source. Although various powerful algorithms have been developed over the last few decades, the time needed for calculation grows exponentially with increasing size of the modelling domain. This is one of the key issues in skyglow computations, because the numerical accuracy improves only slowly as the modelling domain extends. We treat the problem theoretically, by introducing an analytical formula that is well-suited for light sources located at intermediate and long distances from an observation point and allows tremendous time savings in numerical analyses, while keeping the error at a low level. Field experiments carried out in Eastern Austria provided a unique opportunity to validate the model using real-sky luminance data. The fact that the theoretical model allows the prediction of sky luminance within an acceptable error tolerance is not only in line with the experimental data, but also provides new means of remote characterization of light emissions from artificial sources. The method is particularly attractive for rapid and simple retrieval of the amount of light escaping upwards from the dominant light sources surrounding the observation point. We expect that the method can advance the numerical modelling of skyglow substantially, because it allows real-time computations for very large territories.
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2258
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Author S Fotios, C Cheal, S Fox,
Title The transition between lit and unlit sections of road and detection of driving hazards after dark Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 51 Issue 2 Pages 243-261
Keywords Vision; Public Safety; Lighting; Planning
Abstract (up) An experiment to investigate peripheral detection performance during a driver’s transition between lit and unlit sections of road was undertaken. The results suggest that when a driver moves from a lit to an unlit section of road their detection performance decreases almost immediately to that expected for the conditions of the unlit section and that there is no significant change in the subsequent 20-minute period. Tests were conducted at three luminances (0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 cd/m2): while an increase from 0.1 to 1.0 cd/m2 improved detection, a further increase to 2.0 cd/m2 did not. Lighting of two S/P ratios (0.65, 1.40) was examined at 1.0 cd/m2: this did not suggest an effect on detection performance. Taken together, these results suggest that, in the current context, visual performance reached a plateau at 1.0 cd/m2.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1769
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Author Bowden, J.
Title An Analysis of Factors Affecting Catches of Insects in Light-Traps Type Journal Article
Year 1982 Publication Bulletin of Entomological Research Abbreviated Journal Bull. Entomol. Res.
Volume 72 Issue 4 Pages 535-556
Keywords Ecology; Animals
Abstract (up) Analysis of published data on catches of insects in light-traps with a variety of light sources and of different designs showed that all conformed to the previously proposed model describing the functioning of a light-trap: catch = constant × where W = trap illumination and I = background illumination. Light-trap catches in differing cloud conditions and in open and woodland situations also varied as predicted by the model. A table of correction factors for different amounts of cloud cover is provided. The results are discussed in relation to use of light-traps and interpretation of light-trap data.
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ISSN 0007-4853 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2589
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Author Delhey, K.; Peters, A.
Title Implications for conservation of anthropogenic impacts on visual communication and camouflage Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology Abbreviated Journal Conserv Biol
Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 30-39
Keywords Conservation
Abstract (up) Anthropogenic environmental impacts can disrupt the sensory environment of animals and affect important processes from mate choice to predator avoidance. Currently these effects are best understood for auditory and chemo-sensory modalities and recent reviews highlight their importance for conservation. Here we summarise how anthropogenic changes to the visual environment (ambient light, transmission, backgrounds) affect visual communication and camouflage, and highlight implications for conservation. These implications are particularly evident for disrupted camouflage due to its tight links with survival while the conservation importance of impaired visual communication is less well-documented. Such effects can be potentially severe when they affect critical processes such as pollination or species recognition. However, when impaired mate choice does not lead to hybridization, the conservation consequences are less clear. We suggest that the demographic effects of human impacts on visual communication and camouflage will be particularly strong when: (a) human-induced modifications to the visual environment are evolutionary novel, that is, very different from natural variation, (b) affected species and populations have low levels of intraspecific (genotypic and phenotypic) variation and low levels of behavioural, sensory or physiological plasticity and (c) the processes affected are directly related to survival (camouflage), species recognition, or number of offspring produced, rather than offspring quality or attractiveness. The evidence summarized here suggests that anthropogenic effects on the visual environment might be of similar conservation concerns as those on other sensory modalities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address 25 Rainforest Walk, School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, 3800, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0888-8892 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:27604521 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1525
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