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Author Jechow, A.; Holker, F.; Kyba, C.C.M.
Title Using all-sky differential photometry to investigate how nocturnal clouds darken the night sky in rural areas Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 1391
Keywords Skyglow; differential photometry; clouds; sky brightness
Abstract (up) Artificial light at night has affected most of the natural nocturnal landscapes worldwide and the subsequent light pollution has diverse effects on flora, fauna and human well-being. To evaluate the environmental impacts of light pollution, it is crucial to understand both the natural and artificial components of light at night under all weather conditions. The night sky brightness for clear skies is relatively well understood and a reference point for a lower limit is defined. However, no such reference point exists for cloudy skies. While some studies have examined the brightening of the night sky by clouds in urban areas, the published data on the (natural) darkening by clouds is very sparse. Knowledge of reference points for the illumination of natural nocturnal environments however, is essential for experimental design and ecological modeling to assess the impacts of light pollution. Here we use differential all-sky photometry with a commercial digital camera to investigate how clouds darken sky brightness at two rural sites. The spatially resolved data enables us to identify and study the nearly unpolluted parts of the sky and to set an upper limit on ground illumination for overcast nights at sites without light pollution.
Address GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Remote Sensing, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam, Germany
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30718668; PMCID:PMC6361923 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2188
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Author Zhang, F.-S.; Wang, Y.; Wu, K.; Xu, W.-Y.; Wu, J.; Liu, J.-Y.; Wang, X.-Y.; Shuai, L.-Y.
Title Effects of artificial light at night on foraging behavior and vigilance in a nocturnal rodent Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment
Volume In press Issue Pages 138271
Keywords Animals
Abstract (up) Artificial light at night has greatly changed the physical environment for many organisms on a global scale. As an energy efficient light resource, light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been widely used in recent years. As LEDs often have a broad spectrum, many biological processes may be potentially affected. In this study, we conducted manipulated experiments in rat-proof enclosures to explore the effects of LED night lighting on behavior of a nocturnal rodent, the Mongolian five-toed jerboa (Allactaga sibirica). We adopted the giving-up density (GUD) method and camera video trapping to study behavioral responses in terms of patch use, searching efficiency and vigilance. With the presence of white LED lighting, jerboas spent less time in patches, foraged less intensively (with higher GUDs) and became vigilant more frequently, while their searching efficiency was higher than under dark treatment. Although both positive and negative effects of LEDs on foraging were detected, the net effect of LEDs on jerboas is negative, which may further translate into changes in population dynamics, inter-specific interaction and community structure. This is the first study to explore the effects of LED lighting on foraging behavior and search efficiency in rodents with the potential positive effects of using artificial light regimes as a pest management tool.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2877
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Author Straka, T.M.; Greif, S.; Schultz, S.; Goerlitz, H.R.; Voigt, C.C.
Title The effect of cave illumination on bats Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Global Ecology and Conservation Abbreviated Journal Global Ecology and Conservation
Volume 21 Issue Pages e00808
Keywords Animals; Lighting
Abstract (up) Artificial light at night has large impacts on nocturnal wildlife such as bats, yet its effect varies with wavelength of light, context, and across species involved. Here, we studied in two experiments how wild bats of cave-roosting species (Rhinolophus mehelyi, R. euryale, Myotis capaccinii and Miniopterus schreibersii) respond to LED lights of different colours. In dual choice experiments, we measured the acoustic activity of bats in response to neutral-white, red or amber LED at a cave entrance and in a flight room – mimicking a cave interior. In the flight room, M. capaccinii and M. schreibersii preferred red to white light, but showed no preference for red over amber, or amber over white light. In the cave entrance experiment, all light colours reduced the activity of all emerging species, yet red LED had the least negative effect. Rhinolophus species reacted most strongly, matching their refusal to fly at all under any light treatment in the flight room. We conclude that the placement and light colour of LED light should be considered carefully in lighting concepts for caves both in the interior and at the entrance. In a cave interior, red LED light could be chosen – if needed at all – for careful temporary illumination of areas, yet areas important for bats should be avoided based on the precautionary principle. At cave entrances, the high sensitivity of most bat species, particularly of Rhinolophus spp., towards light sources almost irrespective of colour, calls for utmost caution when illuminating cave entrances.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2351-9894 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2700
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Author Jechow, A.; Kyba, C.; Hölker, F.
Title Beyond All-Sky: Assessing Ecological Light Pollution Using Multi-Spectral Full-Sphere Fisheye Lens Imaging Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Imaging Abbreviated Journal J. Imaging
Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 46
Keywords Instrumentation; Skyglow
Abstract (up) Artificial light at night is a novel anthropogenic stressor. The resulting ecological light pollution affects a wide breadth of biological systems on many spatio-temporal scales, from individual organisms to communities and ecosystems. However, a widely-applicable measurement method for nocturnal light providing spatially resolved full-spectrum radiance over the full solid angle is still missing. Here, we explain the first step to fill this gap, by using a commercial digital camera with a fisheye lens to acquire vertical plane multi-spectral (RGB) images covering the full solid angle. We explain the technical and practical procedure and software to process luminance and correlated color temperature maps and derive illuminance. We discuss advantages and limitations and present data from different night-time lighting situations. The method provides a comprehensive way to characterize nocturnal light in the context of ecological light pollution. It is affordable, fast, mobile, robust, and widely-applicable by non-experts for field work.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2313-433X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2327
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Author Haddock, J., K., Threlfall, C. G., Law, B., & Hochuli, D. F.
Title Responses of insectivorous bats and nocturnal insects to local changes in street light technology Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Austral Ecology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 1052-1064
Keywords Animals; Mammals; Bats; Chalinolobus gouldii; Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis; Australia; LED; lighting; street lighting
Abstract (up) Artificial light at night is a pervasive anthropogenic stressor for biodiversity. Many fast‐flying insectivorous bat species feed on insects that are attracted to light‐emitting ultraviolet radiation (10–400 nm). Several countries are currently focused on replacing mercury vapour lamps, which emit ultraviolet light, with more cost‐efficient light‐emitting diode (LED) lights, which emit less ultraviolet radiation. This reduction in ultraviolet light may cause declines in insect densities in cities, predatory fast‐flying bats, and some edge‐foraging and slow‐flying bats. Capitalising on a scheme to update streetlights from high ultraviolet mercury vapour to low ultraviolet LED in Sydney, Australia, we measured the activity of individual bat species, the activity of different functional groups and the bat and insect communities, before and after the change in technology. We also surveyed sites with already LED lights, sites with mercury vapour lights and unlit bushland remnants. Species adapted to foraging in cluttered vegetation, and some edge‐space foraging species, were more active in unlit bushland sites than in all lit sites and decreased in activity at lit sites after the change to LED lights. The change to LED streetlights caused a decrease in the fast‐flying Chalinolobus gouldii but not Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis, the latter being more influenced by seasonal and environmental variables. Insect biomass was not affected by changing light types, but instead was negatively correlated with the moon's percentage illuminance. Changing streetlights to LEDs could result in a decline in some insectivorous bats in cities. This study confirms that unlit urban bushland remnants are important refuges for high bat diversity, particularly for more clutter‐adapted species and some edge‐space foraging species. Preventing light penetration into unlit bushland patches and corridors remains essential to protect the urban bat community.
Address School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Heydon‐Laurence Building, Science Road, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006 Australia; joanna.haddock(at)sydney.edu.au
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2636
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