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Author Rosenberg, Y.; Doniger, T.; Levy, O.
Title Sustainability of coral reefs are affected by ecological light pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba/Eilat Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Communications Biology Abbreviated Journal Commun Biol
Volume 2 Issue Pages 289
Keywords Animals; Ecology; Molecular ecology; Urban ecology
Abstract (up) As human populations grow and lighting technologies improve, artificial light gradually alters natural cycles of light and dark that have been consistent over long periods of geological and evolutionary time. While considerable ecological implications of artificial light have been identified in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats, knowledge about the physiological and molecular effects of light pollution is vague. To determine if ecological light pollution (ELP) impacts coral biological processes, we characterized the transcriptome of the coral Acropora eurystoma under two different light regimes: control conditions and treatment with light at night. Here we show that corals exposed to ELP have approximately 25 times more differentially expressed genes that regulate cell cycle, cell proliferation, cell growth, protein synthesis and display changes in photo physiology. The finding of this work confirms that ELP acts as a chronic disturbance that may impact the future of coral reefs.
Address Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, 52900 Israel.0000 0004 1937 0503grid.22098.31
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2399-3642 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31396569; PMCID:PMC6683144 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2608
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Author Xavier Kerola, D.
Title Modelling artificial night-sky brightness with a polarized multiple scattering radiative transfer computer code: Modelling artificial night-sky brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume 365 Issue 4 Pages 1295-1299
Keywords Skyglow; modeling; radiative transfer; Gauss-Seidel; light pollution; Garstang model
Abstract (up) As part of an ongoing investigation of radiative effects produced by hazy atmospheres, computational procedures have been developed for use in determining the brightening of the night sky as a result of urban illumination. The downwardly and upwardly directed radiances of multiply scattered light from an offending metropolitan source are computed by a straightforward Gauss-Seidel (G-S) iterative technique applied directly to the integrated form of Chandrasekhar's vectorized radiative transfer equation. Initial benchmark night-sky brightness tests of the present G-S model using fully consistent optical emission and extinction input parameters yield very encouraging results when compared with the double scattering treatment of Garstang, the only full-fledged previously available model.
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 278
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Author Chang, Y.; Wang, S.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, L.; Wang, F.
Title A Novel Method of Evaluating Highway Traffic Prosperity Based on Nighttime Light Remote Sensing Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 102
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract (up) As the backbone and arteries of a comprehensive transportation network, highways play an important role in improving people’s living standards and promoting economic growth. However, globally, there is limited quantifiable data evaluating the highway traffic state, characteristics, and performance. From the 1960s to the present, remote sensing has been regarded as the most effective technology for long-term and large-scale monitoring of surface information. However, how to reflect the dynamic “flow” information of traffic with a static remote sensing image has always been a difficult problem that is hard to solve in the field. This study aims to construct a method of evaluating highway traffic prosperity using nighttime remote sensing. First, based on nighttime light data that indicate social and economic activities, a highway-oriented method was proposed to extract highway nighttime light data from 2015 annual nighttime light data of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite sensor (SNPP-VIIRS). Subsequently, Pearson correlation analysis was used to fit the relationship between freeway traffic flow volume and freeway nighttime light at the provincial level. The results showed that Pearson Correlation Coefficient of freeway nighttime light and freeway traffic flow volume for coach and truck are 0.905 and 0.731, respectively, which are higher than between freeway traffic flow volume for coach and truck and total nighttime light (0.593 and 0.516, respectively). A new index—Highway Nighttime Traffic Prosperity Index (HNTPI)—was proposed to evaluate highway traffic across China. The results showed that HNTPI has a strong correspondence with socio-economic parameters. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient of HNTPI and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, consumption per capita, and population are 0.772, 0.895, and 0.968, respectively. There is a huge spatial heterogeneity in China nighttime traffic, the prosperity degree of highway traffic in developed coastal areas is obviously higher than that inland. The national general highway is the most prosperous highway at night and the national general highway nighttime prosperity of Shanghai reached 22.34%. This research provides basic data for the long-term monitoring and evaluation of regional traffic operation at night and research on the correlation between regional highway construction and the economy.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2801
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Author Westby, K.M.; Medley, K.A.
Title Cold Nights, City Lights: Artificial Light at Night Reduces Photoperiodically Induced Diapause in Urban and Rural Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Medical Entomology Abbreviated Journal J Med Entomol
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Aedes albopictus; artificial light at night; common garden; diapause; urban ecology
Abstract (up) As the planet becomes increasingly urbanized, it is imperative that we understand the ecological and evolutionary consequences of urbanization on species. One common attribute of urbanization that differs from rural areas is the prevalence of artificial light at night (ALAN). For many species, light is one of the most important and reliable environmental cues, largely governing the timing of daily and seasonal activity patterns. Recently, it has been shown that ALAN can alter behavioral, phenological, and physiological traits in diverse taxa. For temperate insects, diapause is an essential trait for winter survival and commences in response to declining daylight hours in the fall. Diapause is under strong selection pressure in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse); local adaptation and rapid evolution has been observed along a latitudinal cline. It is unknown how ALAN affects this photosensitive trait or if local adaptation has occurred along an urbanization gradient. Using a common garden experiment, we experimentally demonstrated that simulated ALAN reduces diapause incidence in this species by as much as 40%. There was no difference, however, between urban and rural demes. We also calculated diapause incidence from wild demes in urban areas to determine whether wild populations exhibited lower than predicted incidence compared to estimates from total nocturnal darkness. In early fall, lower than predicted diapause incidence was recorded, but all demes reached nearly 100% diapause before terminating egg laying. It is possible that nocturnal resting behavior in vegetation limits the amount of ALAN exposure this species experiences potentially limiting local adaptation.
Address Tyson Research Center, Washington University in Saint Louis, Eureka, MO
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-2585 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32638000 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3042
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Author Long, X.; Tie, X.; Zhou, J.; Dai, W.; Li, X.; Feng, T.; Li, G.; Cao, J.; An, Z.
Title Impact of the Green Light Program on haze in the North China Plain, China Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Chem. Phys.
Volume 19 Issue 17 Pages 11185-11197
Keywords Economics; Lighting; Planning
Abstract (up) As the world's largest developing country, China has undergone ever-increasing demand for electricity during the past few decades. In 1996, China launched the Green Light Program (GLP), which became a national energy conservation activity for saving lighting electricity as well as an effective reduction of the coal consumption for power generation. Despite the great success of the GLP, its effects on haze have not been investigated and well understood. This study focused on assessing the potential coal saving induced by the improvement of luminous efficacy, the core of the GLP, and on estimating the consequent effects on the haze in the North China Plain (NCP), where a large number of power plants are located and are often engulfed by severe haze. The estimated potential coal saving induced by the GLP can reach a massive value of 120–323 million tons, accounting for 6.7 %–18.0 % of the total coal consumption for thermal power generation in China. There was a massive potential emission reduction of air pollutants from thermal power generation in the NCP, which was estimated to be 20.0–53.8 Gg for NOx and 6.9–18.7 Gg for SO2 in December 2015. The potential emission reduction induced by the GLP plays important roles in the haze formation, because the NOx and SO2 are important precursors for the formation of particles. To assess the impact of the GLP on haze, sensitivity studies were conducted by applying a regional chemical–dynamical model (WRF-CHEM). The model results suggest that in the case of lower-limit emission reduction, the PM2.5 concentration decreased by 2–5 µg m−3 in large areas of the NCP. In the case of upper-limit emission reduction, there was much more remarkable decrease in PM2.5 concentration (4–10 µg m−3). This study is a good example to illustrate that scientific innovation can induce important benefits for environment issues such as haze.
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ISSN 1680-7324 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2671
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