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Author Qiang, Y.; Huang, Q.; Xu, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Observing Community Resilience from Space: Using Nighttime Lights to Model Economic Disturbance and Recovery Pattern in Natural Disaster Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Sustainable Cities and Society Abbreviated Journal Sustainable Cities and Society  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract (up) A major challenge for measuring community resilience is the lack of empirical observation in disasters. As an effective tool for observing human activities on the earth surface, night-time light (NTL) remote sensing images can fill the gap of empirical data for measuring community resilience in natural disasters. This study introduces a quantitative framework to model the recovery pattern of economic activity in a natural disaster using the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) images. The utility of the framework is demonstrated in a case study of Hurricane Katrina, which uncovered the great economic impact of Katrina and spatial variation of the disturbance and recovery pattern of economic activity. Environmental and socio-economic factors that potentially influence the economic recovery were explored in statistical analyses. Instead of a static and holistic index, the framework measures resilience as a dynamic process. The analysis results provide actionable information for prompting resilience in diverse communities and in different phases of a disaster. In addition to Hurricane Katrina, the resilience modeling framework is applicable for other disaster types. The introduced approaches and findings increase our understanding about the complexity of community resilience and provide support for developing resilient and sustainable communities.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2210-6707 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2833  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Garstang, R.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Model for Artificial Night-Sky Illumination. Type Journal Article
  Year 1986 Publication Publ Astron Soc Pac Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 98 Issue 601 Pages 364-375  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract (up) A model has been constructed to allow calculation of the night-sky brightness caused by a city at its center and outside the city, and at arbitrary zenith distances. A circular city of uniform brightness is assumed, with the total brightness proportional to the population. Molecular scattering and aerosol scattering are included, with the amount of aerosols being an adjustable parameter, and different scale heights being adopted for molecules and aerosols. The reflectivity of the ground and the fraction of light radiated above the horizontal are taken as parameters. Applications are given to several cities, to the general population-distance relations, to brightness-distance relations, and to the city center brightness-population relations  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 560  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Garstang, R.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-sky brightness at observatories and sites. Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication Publ Astron Soc Pac Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 101 Issue Pages 306-329  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract (up) A model previously constructed for night-sky brightness calculations has been modified to allow for the curvature of the earth. The model has been applied to calculate the brightness at the following observatories: Mount Wilson, Lick, Mount Palomar, Kitt Peak, Sacramento Peak, Mauna Kea, McDonald, San Pedro Martir, Mount Hopkins, Mount Lemmon, Lowell (Mars Hill), Lowell (Anderson Mesa), Fick, Iowa, Van Vleck, David Dunlap, Anglo-Australian, Haute Provence, and Cerro Tololo. Calculations have also been carried out for the following prospective observatory sites: Junipero Serra, Mount Graham, Charleston Peak, Wheeler Peak, Miller Peak, San Benito Mountain, Lowell (Hutch Mountain), Lowell (Saddle Mountain), and South Baldy (New Mexico). The model is extended to calculate magnitudes in the B photometric band.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 559  
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Author Prabhat, A.; Malik, I.; Jha, N.A.; Bhardwaj, S.K.; Kumar, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Developmental effects of constant light on circadian behaviour and gene expressions in zebra finches: Insights into mechanisms of metabolic adaptation to aperiodic environment in diurnal animals Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 111995  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) A most crucial feature of biological adaptation is the maintenance of a close temporal relationship of behaviour and physiology with prevailing 24-h light-dark environment, which is rapidly changing with increasing nighttime illumination. This study investigated developmental effects of the loss of night on circadian behaviour, metabolism and gene expressions in diurnal zebra finches born and raised under LL, with controls on 12 L:12D. Birds under LD were entrained, and showed normal body mass and a significant 24-h rhythm in both activity-rest pattern and mRNA expression of candidate genes that we measured. But, under LL, birds gained weight and accumulated lipid in the liver. Intriguingly, at the end of the experiment, the majority (4/5th) of birds under LL were rhythmic in activity despite arrhythmic expression in the hypothalamus of c-Fos (neuronal activity), Rhodopsin and Mel1-a genes (light perception), and clock genes (Bmal1, Per2 and Rev-erb β). In peripheral tissues, LL induced variable clock gene expressions. Whereas 24-h mRNA rhythm was abolished for Bmal1 in both liver and gut, it persisted for Per2 and Rev-erb β in liver, and for Per2 in gut. Further, we found under LL, the loss of 24-h rhythm in hepatic expression of Fasn and Cd36/Fat (biosynthesis and its uptake), and gut expression of Sglt1, Glut5, Cd36 and Pept1 (nutrient absorption) genes. As compared to LD, baseline mRNA levels of Fasn and Cd36 genes were attenuated under LL. Among major transporter genes, Sglt1 (glucose) and Cd36 (fat) genes were arrhythmic, while Glut5 (glucose) and Pept1 (protein) genes were rhythmic but with phase differences under LL, compared to LD. These results demonstrate dissociation of circadian behaviour from clock gene rhythms, and provide molecular insights into possible mechanisms at different levels (behaviour and physiology) that diurnal animals might employ in order to adapt to an emerging overly illuminated-night urban environment.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1011-1344 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3085  
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Author Kogure, M.; Yue, J.; Nakamura, T.; Hoffmann, L.; Vadas, S.L.; Tomikawa, Y.; Ejiri, M.K.; Janches, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title First Direct Observational Evidence for Secondary Gravity Waves Generated by Mountain Waves Over the Andes Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Geophysical Research Letters Abbreviated Journal Geophys. Res. Lett.  
  Volume 47 Issue 17 Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Atmospheric Science  
  Abstract (up) A mountain wave with a significant brightness temperature amplitude and ~500 km horizontal wavelength was observed over the Andes on 24–25 July 2017 in Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Aqua satellite data. In the Modern‐Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA‐2), reanalysis data, the intense eastward wind flowed over the Andes. Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)/Suomi‐NPP (National Polar‐orbiting Partnership) did not detect the mountain waves; however, it observed concentric ring‐like waves in the nightglow emissions at ~87 km with ~100 km wavelengths on the same night over and leeward of the Southern Andes. A ray tracing analysis showed that the mountain waves propagated to the east of the Andes, where concentric ring‐like waves appeared above a region of mountain wave breaking. Therefore, the concentric ring‐like waves were likely secondary waves generated by momentum deposition that accompanied mountain wave breaking. These results provide the first direct evidence for secondary gravity waves generated by momentum deposition.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0094-8276 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3117  
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