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Author Jiang, Z.; Zhai, W.; Meng, X.; Long, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Identifying Shrinking Cities with NPP-VIIRS Nightlight Data in China Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Urban Planning and Development Abbreviated Journal J. Urban Plann. Dev.  
  Volume 146 Issue 4 Pages 04020034  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract (up) Although there has been a rapid urbanization in China since the 1980s, the simultaneous urban shrinkage phenomenon has existed for a long time. The study of shrinking cities is particularly important for China as the current urban development has changed from physical expansion to built-up area improvement. After redefining what constitutes a city (what we term a natural city), we compared the adjusted nightlight intensity of National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) data between 2013 and 2016 to accurately identify shrinking cities throughout China. The results indicate that there are 2,862 redefined natural cities in China and that the total area reaches 53,275 km2, about 0.5% of the national territory. Based on this, we identified 798 shrinking cities with a total area of 13,839 km2. After analyzing the relative position of shrinking cities and internal shrinking pixels in the geometric space, the morphological characteristics of shrinking cities were systematically classified into six patterns. The majority of shrinking cities belong to scatter shrinkage, central shrinkage, and local shrinkage; only 5% are complete shrinkage; the rest are unilateral shrinkage and peripheral shrinkage. In addition, six shrinkage causes were quantitatively classified and summarized by referring to multiple-source urban data and municipal yearbooks. To enrich the methodological system for urban shrinkage, the research provides a reminder of the need to consider the other side of urbanization (i.e., dissolution of social networks) and proposes appropriate strategies and policies to address shrinkage issues.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0733-9488 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3065  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Larsen, D.A.; Martin, A.; Pollard, D.; Nielsen, C.F.; Hamainza, B.; Burns, M.; Stevenson, J.; Winters, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Leveraging risk maps of malaria vector abundance to guide control efforts reduces malaria incidence in Eastern Province, Zambia Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 10307  
  Keywords Remote sensing  
  Abstract (up) Although transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases is geographically heterogeneous, in sub-Saharan Africa risk maps are rarely used to determine which communities receive vector control interventions. We compared outcomes in areas receiving different indoor residual spray (IRS) strategies in Eastern Province, Zambia: (1) concentrating IRS interventions within a geographical area, (2) prioritizing communities to receive IRS based on predicted probabilities of Anopheles funestus, and (3) prioritizing communities to receive IRS based on observed malaria incidence at nearby health centers. Here we show that the use of predicted probabilities of An. funestus to guide IRS implementation saw the largest decrease in malaria incidence at health centers, a 13% reduction (95% confidence interval = 5-21%) compared to concentrating IRS geographically and a 37% reduction (95% confidence interval = 30-44%) compared to targeting IRS based on health facility incidence. These results suggest that vector control programs could produce better outcomes by prioritizing IRS according to malaria-vector risk maps.  
  Address University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32587283; PMCID:PMC7316765 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3025  
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Author Kernbach, M.E.; Newhouse, D.J.; Miller, J.M.; Hall, R.J.; Gibbons, J.; Oberstaller, J.; Selechnik, D.; Jiang, R.H.Y.; Unnasch, T.R.; Balakrishnan, C.N.; Martin, L.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution increases West Nile virus competence of a ubiquitous passerine reservoir species Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 286 Issue 1907 Pages 20191051  
  Keywords Animals; Human Health; anthropogenic; ecoimmunology; host competence; light pollution; reservoir host  
  Abstract (up) Among the many anthropogenic changes that impact humans and wildlife, one of the most pervasive but least understood is light pollution. Although detrimental physiological and behavioural effects resulting from exposure to light at night are widely appreciated, the impacts of light pollution on infectious disease risk have not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that artificial light at night (ALAN) extends the infectious-to-vector period of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), an urban-dwelling avian reservoir host of West Nile virus (WNV). Sparrows exposed to ALAN maintained transmissible viral titres for 2 days longer than controls but did not experience greater WNV-induced mortality during this window. Transcriptionally, ALAN altered the expression of gene regulatory networks including key hubs (OASL, PLBD1 and TRAP1) and effector genes known to affect WNV dissemination (SOCS). Despite mounting anti-viral immune responses earlier, transcriptomic signatures indicated that ALAN-exposed individuals probably experienced pathogen-induced damage and immunopathology, potentially due to evasion of immune effectors. A simple mathematical modelling exercise indicated that ALAN-induced increases of host infectious-to-vector period could increase WNV outbreak potential by approximately 41%. ALAN probably affects other host and vector traits relevant to transmission, and additional research is needed to advise the management of zoonotic diseases in light-polluted areas.  
  Address Center for Global Health Infectious Disease Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31337318; PMCID:PMC6661335 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2611  
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Author Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lighting up the nighttime Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 362 Issue 6416 Pages 744-746  
  Keywords Commentary  
  Abstract (up) Among the most visually compelling images of the whole Earth have been those created using data obtained at night by astronauts or from satellites. The proliferation in use of electric lighting—including from industrial, commercial, municipal, and domestic sources—is striking. It sketches the spatial distribution of much of the human population, outlining a substantial proportion of the world's coastline, highlighting a multitude of towns and cities, and drawing the major highways that connect them. The data embodied in these nighttime images have been used to estimate and map levels of energy use, urbanization, and economic activity. They have also been key in focusing attention on the environmental impacts of the artificial light at night itself. Explicit steps need to be taken to limit these impacts, which vary according to the intensity, spectrum, spatial extent, and temporal dynamics of this lighting.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK. k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30442788 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2058  
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Author Rosewater, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cost Statistics of Public Electric Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 1893 Publication Publications of the American Statistical Association Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 3 Issue 21 Pages 293-303  
  Keywords Economics  
  Abstract (up) Among the various papers published upon the subject of municipial control of public electric lighting the showing made by the statistics of cost is always an important factor. Whatever be the point of view of the writers, they seem to present their own figures and yet to arrive at essentially inconsistent results. What I propose to do here, then, is simply to touch upon a few of the limitations which must be borne in mind by anyone who wishes to give these statistics their due scientific weight.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2474  
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