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Author Grunst, M.L.; Raap, T.; Grunst, A.S.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night does not affect telomere shortening in a developing free-living songbird: A field experiment Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume 662 Issue Pages 266-275  
  Keywords Animals; birds; Great tit; Parus major; telomere shortening; Stress  
  Abstract (up) Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly pervasive anthropogenic disturbance factor. ALAN can seriously disrupt physiological systems that follow circadian rhythms, and may be particularly influential early in life, when developmental trajectories are sensitive to stressful conditions. Using great tits (Parus major) as a model species, we experimentally examined how ALAN affects physiological stress in developing nestlings. We used a repeated-measure design to assess effects of ALAN on telomere shortening, body mass, tarsus length and body condition. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences that protect chromosomes from damage and malfunction. Early-life telomere shortening can be accelerated by environmental stressors, and has been linked to later-life declines in survival and reproduction. We also assayed nitric oxide, as an additional metric of physiological stress, and determined fledging success. Change in body condition between day 8 and 15 differed according to treatment. Nestlings exposed to ALAN displayed a trend towards a decline in condition, whereas control nestlings displayed a trend towards increased condition. This pattern was driven by a greater increase in tarsus length relative to mass in nestlings exposed to ALAN. Nestlings in poorer condition and nestlings that were smaller than their nest mates had shorter telomeres. However, exposure to ALAN was unrelated to telomere shortening, and also had no effect on nitric oxide concentrations or fledging success. Thus, exposure to ALAN may not have led to sufficient stress to induce telomere shortening. Indeed, plasticity in other physiological systems could allow nestlings to maintain telomere length despite moderate stress. Alternatively, the cascade of physiological and behavioral responses associated with light exposure may have no net effect on telomere dynamics.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2161  
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Author Grubisic, M.; Haim, A.; Bhusal, P.; Dominoni, D.M.; Gabriel, K.M.A.; Jechow, A.; Kupprat, F.; Lerner, A.; Marchant, P.; Riley, W.; Stebelova, K.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; Zeman, M.; Zubidat, A.E.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light Pollution, Circadian Photoreception, and Melatonin in Vertebrates Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 11 Issue 22 Pages 6400  
  Keywords Animals; Review  
  Abstract (up) Artificial light at night (ALAN) is increasing exponentially worldwide, accelerated by the transition to new efficient lighting technologies. However, ALAN and resulting light pollution can cause unintended physiological consequences. In vertebrates, production of melatonin—the “hormone of darkness” and a key player in circadian regulation—can be suppressed by ALAN. In this paper, we provide an overview of research on melatonin and ALAN in vertebrates. We discuss how ALAN disrupts natural photic environments, its effect on melatonin and circadian rhythms, and different photoreceptor systems across vertebrate taxa. We then present the results of a systematic review in which we identified studies on melatonin under typical light-polluted conditions in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. Melatonin is suppressed by extremely low light intensities in many vertebrates, ranging from 0.01–0.03 lx for fishes and rodents to 6 lx for sensitive humans. Even lower, wavelength-dependent intensities are implied by some studies and require rigorous testing in ecological contexts. In many studies, melatonin suppression occurs at the minimum light levels tested, and, in better-studied groups, melatonin suppression is reported to occur at lower light levels. We identify major research gaps and conclude that, for most groups, crucial information is lacking. No studies were identified for amphibians and reptiles and long-term impacts of low-level ALAN exposure are unknown. Given the high sensitivity of vertebrate melatonin production to ALAN and the paucity of available information, it is crucial to research impacts of ALAN further in order to inform effective mitigation strategies for human health and the wellbeing and fitness of vertebrates in natural ecosystems.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2733  
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Author Kosicki, J.Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anthropogenic activity expressed as ‘artificial light at night’ improves predictive density distribution in bird populations Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Ecological Complexity Abbreviated Journal Ecological Complexity  
  Volume 41 Issue Pages 100809  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract (up) Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is one of the most important anthropogenic environmental components that affects biodiversity worldwide. Despite extensive knowledge on ALAN, being a measure of human activity that directly impacts numerous aspects of animal behaviour, such as orientation and distribution, little is known about its effects on density distribution on a large spatial scale. That is why we decided to explore by means of the Species Distribution Modelling approach (SDM) how ALAN as one of 33 predictors determines farmland and forest bird species densities. In order to safeguard study results from any inconsistency caused by the chosen method, we used two approaches, i.e. the Generalised Additive Model (GAM) and the Random Forest (RF). Within each approach, we developed two models for two bird species, the Black woodpecker and the European stonechat: the first with ALAN, and the second without ALAN as an additional predictor. Having used out-of-bag procedures in the RF approach, information-theoretic criteria for the GAM, and evaluation models based on an independent dataset, we demonstrated that models with ALAN had higher predictive density power than models without it. The Black woodpecker definitely and linearly avoids anthropogenic activity, defined by the level of artificial light, while the European stonechat tolerates human activity to some degree, especially in farmland habitats. What is more, a heuristic analysis of predictive maps based on models without ALAN shows that both species reach high densities in regions where they are deemed rare. Hence, the study proves that urbanisation processes, which can be reflected by ALAN, are among key predictors necessary for developing Species Density Distribution Models for both farmland and forest bird species.  
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  ISSN 1476945X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2776  
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Author Maggi, E.; Bongiorni, L.; Fontanini, D.; Capocchi, A.; Dal Bello, M.; Giacomelli, A.; Benedetti‐Cecchi, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night erases positive interactions across trophic levels Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Functional Ecology Abbreviated Journal Funct Ecol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 1365-2435.13485  
  Keywords Ecology; Bacteria; Ecosystems  
  Abstract (up) Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of the most recently recognized sources of anthropogenic disturbance, with potentially severe effects on biological systems that are still to be fully explored. Among marine ecosystems, high shore habitats are those more likely to be impacted by ALAN, due to a more intense exposition to outdoor nocturnal lightings (mostly from lamps along coastal streets and promenades, or within harbors, ports and marinas).

2.By performing in situ nocturnal manipulations of a direct source of white LED light and presence of herbivores in a Mediterranean high‐shore habitat, we assessed the interactive effects of light pollution and grazing on two key functional components of the epilithic microbial community (the cyanobacteria, as the main photoautotrophic component, and the other bacteria, mainly dominated by heterotrophs) developing on rocky shores.

3.Results showed an unexpected increase in the diversity of epilithic bacterial biofilm at unlit sites in the presence of grazers, that was more evident on the other (mainly heterotrophic) bacterial component, when giving weight to more abundant families. This effect was likely related to the mechanical removal of dead cells through the grazing activity of consumers. ALAN significantly modified this scenario, by reducing the density of grazers and thus erasing their effects on bacteria, and by increasing the diversity of more abundant cyanobacterial families.

4.Overall, direct and indirect effects on ALAN resulted in a significant increase in the diversity of the photoautotrophic component and a decrease in the heterotrophic one, likely affecting key ecosystem functions acting on rocky shore habitats.

5.ALAN may represent a threat for natural systems through the annihilation of positive interactions across trophic levels, potentially impairing the relationship between biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems and interacting with other global and local stressors currently impinging on coastal areas.
 
  Address Dip. di Biologia, CoNISMa, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy; elena.maggi(at)unipi.it  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher British Ecological Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-8463 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2746  
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Author Hoffmann, J.; Palme, R.; Eccard, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Long-term dim light during nighttime changes activity patterns and space use in experimental small mammal populations Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut  
  Volume 238 Issue Pages 844-851  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract (up) Artificial light at night (ALAN) is spreading worldwide and thereby is increasingly interfering with natural dark-light cycles. Meanwhile, effects of very low intensities of light pollution on animals have rarely been investigated. We explored the effects of low intensity ALAN over seven months in eight experimental bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations in large grassland enclosures over winter and early breeding season, using LED garden lamps. Initial populations consisted of eight individuals (32 animals per hectare) in enclosures with or without ALAN. We found that bank voles under ALAN experienced changes in daily activity patterns and space use behavior, measured by automated radiotelemetry. There were no differences in survival and body mass, measured with live trapping, and none in levels of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. Voles in the ALAN treatment showed higher activity at night during half moon, and had larger day ranges during new moon. Thus, even low levels of light pollution as experienced in remote areas or by sky glow can lead to changes in animal behavior and could have consequences for species interactions.  
  Address Animal Ecology, University of Potsdam, Maulbeerallee 1, 14469, Potsdam, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29627754 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1848  
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