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Author Nasar, J.L.; Bokharaei, S.
Title Lighting modes and their effects on impressions of public squares Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of Environmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Psychology
Volume 49 Issue Pages 96-105
Keywords Psychology
Abstract Lighting may affect impressions of public places after dark. Prospect-refuge theory suggests that people would favor uniform, bright, or overhead lighting to the alternatives. The study had 363 (161 men, 202 women) adult participants. An on-line survey displayed color slides of two simulated squares, each repeated for all mixes of lighting modes (order randomized across participants). One square also varied the peripheral lighting tilt (down or out). For ratings, each participant was assigned at random to use one of twelve items for evaluation, excitement, restfulness, or behavioral intent. Because the scales had high inter-item reliability, we combined them into a composite preference scale. In agreement with P-R theory, uniform, bright, and overhead lighting received the higher scores. The peripheral lighting tilt (down or out) did not affect preference. Lighting designs might do well to offer unobstructed views of information ahead. Research could test on-site experience and different aspects of lighting.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0272-4944 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1612
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Author Alamús, R.; Bará, S.; Corbera, J.; Escofet, J.; Palà , V.; Pipia, L.; Tardà, A.
Title Ground-based hyperspectral analysis of the urban nightscape Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
Volume 124 Issue Pages 16-26
Keywords Instrumentation; Remote Sensing
Abstract Airborne hyperspectral cameras provide the basic information to estimate the energy wasted skywards by outdoor lighting systems, as well as to locate and identify their sources. However, a complete characterization of the urban light pollution levels also requires evaluating these effects from the city dwellers standpoint, e.g. the energy waste associated to the excessive illuminance on walls and pavements, light trespass, or the luminance distributions causing potential glare, to mention but a few. On the other hand, the spectral irradiance at the entrance of the human eye is the primary input to evaluate the possible health effects associated with the exposure to artificial light at night, according to the more recent models available in the literature. In this work we demonstrate the possibility of using a hyperspectral imager (routinely used in airborne campaigns) to measure the ground-level spectral radiance of the urban nightscape and to retrieve several magnitudes of interest for light pollution studies. We also present the preliminary results from a field campaign carried out in the downtown of Barcelona.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0924-2716 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1613
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Author Lee, J.G.-H.; MacGregor-Fors, I.; Yeh, P.J.
Title Sunrise in the city: disentangling drivers of the avian dawn chorus onset in urban greenspaces Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of Avian Biology Abbreviated Journal J Avian Biol
Volume 48 Issue 7 Pages 955-964
Keywords Animals
Abstract Urban systems are known to have a number of effects on avian diversity, density, and morphological and behavioral traits. However, no study to date has simultaneously examined the wide range of urban variables in relation to the avian dawn chorus, a complex behavioral phenomenon. Previous studies investigating adjustments of the dawn chorus onset in urban settings have mainly been confined to relationships with noise and light levels. In addition to noise and light levels, in this study we included other potentially related environmental characteristics describing vegetation structure, urban infrastructure, and human activity, all of which have been shown to be drivers of bird diversity in urban areas. We conducted dawn chorus surveys at 38 Los Angeles urban greenspaces and used a classification and regression tree analysis to identify specific urban scenarios that best explained timing differences in the dawn chorus onset. Our results show that light level was the most important determinant of the dawn chorus onset time, in which, counter-intuitively, bird communities in greenspaces with higher light levels had later onsets. In addition, noise was an important factor for the chorus onset in greenspaces with higher light levels. Although our results differ from those of previous studies, these findings highlight the importance of noise and light levels in explaining dawn chorus onset variation, indicating the need for further research in untangling this complex and ecologically important phenomenon.
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ISSN 0908-8857 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1623
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Author Wang, H.-B.; Whittaker, D.S.; Truong, D.; Mulji, A.K.; Ghiani, C.A.; Loh, D.H.; Colwell, C.S.
Title Blue light therapy improves circadian dysfunction as well as motor symptoms in two mouse models of Huntington's disease Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Abbreviated Journal Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
Volume 2 Issue Pages 39-52
Keywords animals; Human Health
Abstract Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit movement disorders, psychiatric disturbance and cognitive impairments as the disease progresses. Abnormal sleep/wake cycles are common among HD patients with reports of delayed sleep onset, fatigue during the day, and a delayed pattern of melatonin secretion all of which suggest circadian dysfunction. Mouse models of HD confirm disrupted circadian rhythms with pathophysiology found in the central circadian clock (suprachiasmatic nucleus). Importantly, circadian dysfunction manifests early in disease, even before the classic motor symptoms, in both patients and mouse models. Therefore, we hypothesize that the circadian dysfunction may interact with the disease pathology and exacerbate the HD symptoms. If correct, early intervention may benefit patients and delay disease progression. One test of this hypothesis is to determine whether light therapy designed to strengthen this intrinsic timing system can delay the disease progression in mouse models. Therefore, we determined the impact of blue wavelength-enriched light on two HD models: the BACHD and Q175 mice. Both models received 6 hours of blue-light at the beginning of their daily light cycle for 3 months. After treatment, both genotypes showed improvements in their locomotor activity rhythm without significant change to their sleep behavior. Critically, treated mice of both lines exhibited improved motor performance compared to untreated controls. Focusing on the Q175 genotype, we sought to determine whether the treatment altered signaling pathways in brain regions known to be impacted by HD using NanoString gene expression assays. We found that the expression of several HD relevant markers was altered in the striatum and cortex of the treated mice. Our study demonstrates that strengthening the circadian system can delay the progression of HD in pre-clinical models. This work suggests that lighting conditions should be considered when managing treatment of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2451-9944 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1626
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Author Persons, W.E.; Eason, P.
Title Human activity and habitat type affect perceived predation risk in urban white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal Ethology
Volume 123 Issue 5 Pages 348-356
Keywords Animals
Abstract Predation risk is one of the largest costs associated with foraging in small mammals. Small mammals select microhabitat features such as tree and shrub canopy cover, woody debris and vegetative ground cover that can lower the risk of detection from predators and provide greater protection if discovered. Small mammals also increase foraging activity and decrease selection for cover when cloud cover increases and moon illumination is less. Often researchers assume small mammals in urban areas respond to these cues in the same manner as in natural areas, but these cues themselves are altered in urban zones. In this study, we investigated how Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) and coarse woody debris (CWD) affected giving-up density (GUD) in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Each of three habitat treatments (open flood channel, the edge and interior of the honeysuckle patch) contained cover treatments with coarse woody debris present or absent. The six treatment combinations were compared to environmental variables (temperature, humidity and illumination) and habitat variables to test their effect on GUD. Peromyscus leucopus foraged to lower densities in areas with CWD present and also under the honeysuckle canopy, using this invasive shrub to decrease predation risk, potentially increasing survivability within this urban park. Increased human presence negatively affected foraging behavior across treatments. Human presence and light pollution significantly influenced P. leucopus, modifying their foraging behavior and demonstrating that both fine- and coarse-scale urban factors can affect small mammals. Foraging increased as humidity increased, particularly under the honeysuckle canopy. Changes in illumination due to moonlight and cloud cover did not affect foraging behavior, suggesting urban light pollution may have altered behavioral responses to changes in light levels. Lonicera maackii seemed to facilitate foraging in P. leucopus, even though it adversely affects the plant community, suggesting that its impact may not be entirely negative.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0179-1613 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1642
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