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Author Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-pollution model for cloudy and cloudless night skies with ground-based light sources Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Applied Optics Abbreviated Journal Appl. Opt.  
  Volume 46 Issue 15 Pages 3013  
  Keywords light pollution; modeling  
  Abstract The scalable theoretical model of light pollution for ground sources is presented. The model is successfully employed for simulation of angular behavior of the spectral and integral sky radiance and∕or luminance during nighttime. There is no restriction on the number of ground-based light sources or on the spatial distribution of these sources in the vicinity of the measuring point (i.e., both distances and azimuth angles of the light sources are configurable). The model is applicable for real finite-dimensional surface sources with defined spectral and angular radiating properties contrary to frequently used point-source approximations. The influence of the atmosphere on the transmitted radiation is formulated in terms of aerosol and molecular optical properties. Altitude and spectral reflectance of a cloud layer are the main factors introduced for simulation of cloudy and∕or overcast conditions. The derived equations are translated into numerically fast code, and it is possible to repeat the entire set of calculations in real time. The parametric character of the model enables its efficient usage by illuminating engineers and∕or astronomers in the study of various light-pollution situations. Some examples of numerical runs in the form of graphical results are presented.  
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  ISSN 0003-6935 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 277  
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Author Xavier Kerola, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Modelling artificial night-sky brightness with a polarized multiple scattering radiative transfer computer code: Modelling artificial night-sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 365 Issue 4 Pages 1295-1299  
  Keywords Skyglow; modeling; radiative transfer; Gauss-Seidel; light pollution; Garstang model  
  Abstract As part of an ongoing investigation of radiative effects produced by hazy atmospheres, computational procedures have been developed for use in determining the brightening of the night sky as a result of urban illumination. The downwardly and upwardly directed radiances of multiply scattered light from an offending metropolitan source are computed by a straightforward Gauss-Seidel (G-S) iterative technique applied directly to the integrated form of Chandrasekhar's vectorized radiative transfer equation. Initial benchmark night-sky brightness tests of the present G-S model using fully consistent optical emission and extinction input parameters yield very encouraging results when compared with the double scattering treatment of Garstang, the only full-fledged previously available model.  
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  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 278  
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Author Shillo, R., & Halevy, A. H. url  openurl
  Title Interaction of photoperiod and temperature in flowering-control of Gypsophila paniculata L Type Journal Article
  Year 1982 Publication Scientia Horticulturae Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 16 Issue 4 Pages 385-393  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Long day promotes flowering of Gysophila paniculata L cultivar ‘Bristol Fairy’. Repeated treatments with GA3 or GA4 + 7 in short days did not promote flowering. The long photoperiod is effective only at relatively high temperatures. At night temperatures below 12°C, the plants remain vegetative even in long days. Efficient artificial lighting is from incandescent lamps at 60–100 lux. Fluorescent lighting (Cool-White) is not effective. Lighting of 4 hours as a night-break or at the end of the night were equally effective, but 4 hours lighting as a day-extension was less effective. Whole-night lighting promoted flowering more than any of the 4-hour lighting regimes. Cyclic lighting of one third light in each cycle promoted flowering to the same extent as continuous lighting. Light intensity during the day has a decisive effect on flower production.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2370  
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Author Johnson, A.; Phadke, A.; de la Rue du Cann, S. url  openurl
  Title Energy Savings Potential for Street Lighting in India Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory report Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Energy; India; South Asia  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 432  
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Author Lyytimäki, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nature's nocturnal services: Light pollution as a non-recognised challenge for ecosystem services research and management Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Ecosystem Services Abbreviated Journal Ecosystem Services  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages e44-e48  
  Keywords Economics; Ecosystem disservices; Ecosystem services; Environmental management; Light pollution; Scotoecology; Shifting baselines  
  Abstract Research focusing on ecosystem services has tackled several of the major drivers of environmental degradation, but it suffers from a blind spot related to light pollution. Light pollution caused by artificial night-time lighting is a global environmental change affecting terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. The long-term effects of the disruption of the natural cycles of light and dark on ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services are largely unknown. Even though additional research is clearly needed, identifying, developing and implementing stringent management actions aimed at reducing inadequately installed, unnecessary or excessive lighting are well justified. This essay argues that management is hampered, because ecosystem services from nocturnal nature are increasingly underappreciated by the public due to shifting baseline syndrome, making most people accustomed to constantly illuminated and light-polluted night environments. Increased attention from scientists, managers and the public is needed in order to explicate the best options for preserving the benefits from natural darkness.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2212-0416 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 433  
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