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Author (up) Albreiki, Mohammed S.
Title The effects of light at night and/or melatonin on hormones, metabo- lites, appetite control, vascular function, and behavioural responses. Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication University of Surrey Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Light at night (LAN) is a major factor in disruption of SCN function, including melatonin suppression. Melatonin has been linked to a variety of biological processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, vascular parameters, appetite, and behaviour. However, few human studies have investigated the effect of LAN and suppressed melatonin prior to and after an evening meal. The current thesis aims to investigate the impact of light at night and/or mela- tonin on hormones, metabolites, appetite, vascular function, and behaviour prior to and after an evening test meal in healthy participants. The first study investigated the effect of dim or bright light conditions on hor- mones, metabolites, appetite, vascular function and behavioural responses. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were reduced, lipid profiles altered and salivary melatonin suppressed under bright light compared to dim light conditions. Subjec- tive mood was improved and appetite scores increased in bright light. No differences were seen in vascular parameters. Although clear differences were apparent it could not be determined whether the effects were due to the light at night, the absence of melatonin or a combination of the two. The second study involved three conditions with the administration of exogenous melatonin 90 mins before the evening test meal under bright and dim light conditions compared to bright light alone with the consequent melatonin suppression. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were reduced and lipid profile altered in bright light when melatonin was suppressed compared to the two conditions with exogenous melatonin. Mood was improved and appetite increased with lower leptin levels and elevated wrist temperature with bright light and suppressed melatonin. Statistical analysis showed that the major effects were due to melatonin. These studies demonstrate a possible role for melatonin in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism when eating late at night which may have implications for shift-workers.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1747
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Author (up) Alessandro Manfrin, Gabriel Singer, Stefano Larsen, Nadine Weiss, Roy H. A. van Grunsven, Nina-Sophie Weiss, Stefanie Wohlfahrt, Michael T. Monaghan and Franz Hölker
Title Artificial light at night affects organism flux across ecosystem boundaries and drives community structure in the recipient ecosystem Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Frontiers in Environmental Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5 Issue 61 Pages
Keywords Animals; Ecology
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a widespread alteration of the natural environment that can affect the functioning of ecosystems. ALAN can change the movement patterns of freshwater animals that move into the adjacent riparian and terrestrial ecosystems, but the implications for local riparian consumers that rely on these subsidies are still unexplored. We conducted a two-year field experiment to quantify changes of freshwater-terrestrial linkages by installing streetlights in a previously light-native riparian area adjacent to an agricultural drainage ditch. We compared the abundance and community composition of emerging aquatic insects, flying insects, and ground-dwelling arthropods with an unlit control site. Comparisons were made within and between years using generalized least squares and a BACI design (Before-After Control-Impact). Aquatic insect emergence, the proportion of flying insects that were aquatic in origin, and the total abundance of flying insects all increased in the ALAN-illuminated area. The abundance of several night-active ground-dwelling predators (Pachygnatha clercki, Trochosa sp., Opiliones) increased under ALAN and their activity was extended into the day. Conversely, the abundance of nocturnal ground beetles (Carabidae) decreased under ALAN. The changes in composition of riparian predator and scavenger communities suggest that the increase in aquatic-to-terrestrial subsidy flux may cascade through the riparian food web. The work is among the first studies to experimentally manipulate ALAN using a large-scale field experiment, and provides evidence that ALAN can affect processes that link adjacent ecosystems. Given the large number of streetlights that are installed along shorelines of freshwater bodies throughout the globe, the effects could be widespread and represent an underestimated source of impairment for both aquatic and riparian systems.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1746
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Author (up) Ali A.A.S., Zakaria S.A., Guan A.C.K., Shun C.J.
Title Lighting for Heritage Building: A Case Study of the Lighting Design Applied on St. George’s Church in George Town, Penang Island Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Awang M., Meor M Fared M. (eds) ICACE 2019. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering Abbreviated Journal
Volume 59 Issue Pages 113-119
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Light is one of the critical aspects of architecture, yet it is one of the understated elements in our daily lives. Light has a significant spot to form events, activities, and memories. Scientific studies have shown that appropriate and proper lighting does not only affect human health but daily human moods as well. Nowadays, lighting fixtures play essential roles in architecture and markets. A proper lighting fixture helps to highlight the structure, textures, and form of the shape of a building. However, the designers tend to focus more on the art aesthetics rather than the conservation ethics, such as the colorful design and the attractive lighting fixtures on the building, while the prime concern should be on realizing the impact of the lighting fixture toward the environment. The objectives of this study are to highlight the issues of the lighting system of the heritage building and suggest some recommendations to meet the requirements for the heritage building for better lighting design. The data for this research was collected using the quantitative method. Thus, as a result, it is found out that lighting design highlights the historical building, and therefore, attracts tourists, which benefit the economy. However, improper lighting installation leads to a negative impact on the society and human health.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2950
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Author (up) Alquezar, R.D.; Macedo, R.H.; Sierro, J.; Gil, D.
Title Lack of consistent responses to aircraft noise in dawn song timing of bird populations near tropical airports Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav Ecol Sociobiol
Volume 74 Issue 7 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Birds living near airports can reduce the noise interference by advancing their dawn chorus timing and avoiding the start of airport operations. Data supporting this finding come from temperate areas, but little is known from tropical environments, where seasonal variation is lower and biodiversity is higher. Here, we investigated whether 15 tropical bird species are able to advance their dawn song and avoid aircraft noise interference. We sampled dawn song in three airports and three control sites in Brazil, using automated recording units. We found that dawn song times were not globally affected by the exposure to airport noise. Instead, changes were highly variable and species-specific, as dawn song onset was significantly advanced in two and delayed in four species. This large variation in responses was surprising given patterns found in previous studies. Indeed, this is the first time that a significant delay is reported for bird’s dawn song. We explored whether between-species differences in this response could be explained by additional variables (song frequency, degree of urbanity, and noise release), but none of them explained the direction or the strength of the changes. We suggest that earlier airport activity and shorter variations in day length and in twilight duration of tropical areas may be restricting birds’ ability to change dawn song timing. Further studies should consider these differences and analyze to what extent populational declines in noisy areas and the resultant reduced competition for acoustic space may be affecting the changes in dawn chorus onset time.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3017
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Author (up) Alzahrani, H.S.; Khuu, S.K.; Roy, M.
Title Modelling the effect of commercially available blue-blocking lenses on visual and non-visual functions Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Clinical & Experimental Optometry Abbreviated Journal Clin Exp Optom
Volume in press Issue Pages cxo.12959
Keywords Human Health; blue-blocking lenses; non-visual functions; transmittance; visual functions
Abstract BACKGROUND: Blue-blocking lenses (BBLs) are marketed as providing retinal protection from acute and cumulative exposure to blue light over time. The selective reduction in visible wavelengths transmitted through BBLs is known to influence the photosensitivity of retinal photoreceptors, which affects both visual and non-visual functions. This study measured the spectral transmittance of BBLs and evaluated their effect on blue perception, scotopic vision, circadian rhythm, and protection from photochemical retinal damage. METHODS: Seven different types of BBLs from six manufacturers and untinted control lenses with three different powers (+2.00 D, -2.00 D and Plano) were evaluated. The whiteness index of BBLs used in this study was calculated using Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) Standard Illuminates D65, and CIE 1964 Standard with a 2 degrees Observer. The protective qualities of BBLs and their effect on blue perception, scotopic vision, and circadian rhythm were evaluated based on their spectral transmittance, which was measured with a Cary 5,000 UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. RESULTS: BBLs were found to reduce blue light (400-500 nm) by 6-43 per cent, providing significant protection from photochemical retinal damage compared to control lenses (p </= 0.05). All BBLs were capable of reducing the perception of blue colours, scotopic sensitivities and circadian sensitivities by 5-36 per cent, 5-24 per cent, and 4-27 per cent, respectively depending on the brand and power of the lens. CONCLUSION: BBLs can provide some protection to the human eye from photochemical retinal damage by reducing a portion of blue light that may affect visual and non-visual performances, such as those critical to scotopic vision, blue perception, and circadian rhythm.
Address School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0816-4622 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31441122 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2654
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