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Author (up) Desouhant, E.; Gomes, E.; Mondy, N.; Amat, I.
Title Mechanistic, ecological, and evolutionary consequences of artificial light at night for insects: review and prospective Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Abbreviated Journal Entomol Exp Appl
Volume 167 Issue 1 Pages 37-58
Keywords Animals
Abstract The alternation of light and dark periods on a daily or seasonal time scale is of utmost importance for the synchronization of physiological and behavioral processes in the environment. For the last 2 decades, artificial light at night (ALAN) has strongly increased worldwide, disrupting the photoperiod and its related physiological processes, and impacting the survival and reproduction of wild animals. ALAN is now considered as a major concern for biodiversity and human health. Here, we present why insects are relevant biological models to investigate the impact of ALAN. First the phenotypic responses to ALAN and their underpinning mechanisms are reviewed. The consequences for population dynamics, and the community composition and functioning are described in the second part. Because ALAN provides new and widespread selective pressure, we inventory evolutionary changes in response to this anthropogenic change. Finally, we identify promising future avenues, focusing on the necessity of understanding evolutionary processes that could help stakeholders consider darkness as a resource to preserve biodiversity as well as numerous ecosystem services in which insects are involved.
Address
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-8703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2195
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Author (up) Dhaliwal, S.S.; Keller, J.; Le, H.-N.; Lewin, D.S.
Title Sleep Disturbance among Pregnant Women: The Influence of Environmental and Contextual Factors Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sleep Abbreviated Journal
Volume 42 Issue Supplement_1 Pages A270-A271
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Introduction

Disrupted sleep during pregnancy affects nearly 85% of women. This can contribute to psychological distress and antenatal depression. The aims of the current project were to test whether (a) poorer subjective sleep quality contributed to greater depression and anxiety symptoms, and (b) contextual factors predicted clinically significant sleep disturbance after adjusting for socioeconomic status (SES).

Methods

In a mixed-methods study, 418 pregnant women (age: M=32.4 years; gestation: M=28.4 weeks, SD=8.4 weeks; 58% Black) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), measures of pregnancy-related physiological factors, and provided details about their sleep environment. They also rated perinatal depression, anxiety, and SES (Hollingshead and MacArthur Ladder). Sixty-two women completed these measures again later in pregnancy (gestation M = 34.2 weeks). A subset of seven women underwent actigraphy (9-nights) during their third trimester. Logistic regressions adjusted for age, BMI, race, sleep disordered breathing, and gestational week.

Results

Subjective sleep quality was significantly poorer among Black women and those with higher BMI. Physiological factors (i.e., restless leg syndrome, nocturnal urination, and acid reflux) explained subjective sleep disturbance after accounting for gestational week (ps<.01). Among women with history of psychopathology (n=221), sleep disturbance was significantly related to anxiety and depression symptoms (ps<.01), with greater sleep disturbance (PSQI score >5) predicting clinically significant antenatal depression (B = .38, p<.05). However, those who rated their social standing as higher reported lower sleep disturbance throughout pregnancy, even after adjusting for mood and anxiety (B= .86, SE =.41; p<.05). There was a dose-response positive association between sleep disturbance and depression severity among Black women only (B = .89; p<.05). Among lower SES Black women, environmental factors (greater ambient noise and light pollution) partially mediated this effect (B= .45, SE =.17; p<.01).

Conclusion

Sociocontextual factors may explain sleep disturbance severity among low-income pregnant Black women, above and beyond traditional metrics of SES. Higher subjective SES may be protective against sleep disturbance and psychiatric distress. Assessments of sleep during pregnancy should account for physiological considerations and environmental disruptions, alongside mood and anxiety.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0161-8105 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2323
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Author (up) Dias, K.S.; Dosso, E.S.; Hall, A.S.; Schuch, A.P.; Tozetti, A.M.
Title Ecological light pollution affects anuran calling season, daily calling period, and sensitivity to light in natural Brazilian wetlands Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The Science of Nature Abbreviated Journal Sci Nat
Volume 106 Issue 7-8 Pages 46
Keywords Animals
Abstract Ecological light pollution alters an environment's light cycle, potentially affecting photoperiod-controlled behavior. Anurans, for example, generally breed nocturnally, and the influence of light pollution on their natural history may therefore be especially strong. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by measuring male calling behavior of anuran communities in natural wetlands in southern Brazil exposed or not exposed to street lights. We recorded seasonal and diel calling activity and calling response to a light pulse. The peak calling season differed between continuously lit and unlit locations with most species in illuminated wetlands shortening their calling season and calling earlier in the year. In unlit breeding sites, Boana pulchella, Pseudis minuta, and Pseudopaludicola falcipes confined their calling activity to well-defined hours of the night, but in continuously lit areas, these species called more continuously through the night. A 2-minute light pulse inhibited calling, but only in unlit wetlands. After a light pulse, frogs quickly resumed calling-suggesting acclimatization to brief artificial light exposure. Our field experiment presents a convincing example of ecological light pollution showing that artificial light alters the seasonal and diel calling time of some South American wetland anurans. It also documents their acclimatization to brief lighting when being continuously exposed to light.
Address Laboratorio de Ecologia de Vertebrados Terrestres, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos – UNISINOS, Campus Sao Leopoldo, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, 93020-190, Brazil
Corporate Author Thesis
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-1042 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31280391 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2560
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Author (up) Dick, R.
Title The Biological Basis for the Canadian Guideline for Outdoor Lighting 1. General Scotobiology Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada Abbreviated Journal
Volume 114 Issue 3 Pages 122-126
Keywords Biology; Ecology
Abstract The subject of limiting outdoor lighting seems straightforward- it saves electricity and reduces glare, but society has a predilection for activity at night that requires more than natural light. This extends beyond urban areas. “Cottage country” is well lit along the shoreline, and even campgrounds filled with amateur astronomers have lots of unshielded lights. Although these tend to be red, they still undermine our night vision (Dick, 2016) and change the nocturnal ambience. The main problem of whether outdoor lighting is good or bad depends on who is judge. Is there a less equivocal way to assess or define acceptable outdoor lighting, especially in rural areas? Must rural lighting follow “Best Practices” for cities? This is the first in a series of papers that will discuss the science behind the ecological impacts of artificial (anthropogenic) light at night. It will propose rational solutions to reduce these impacts and will define the characteristics of artificial light that minimize these disruptions that we call lighting with “low-ecological impact.” Although taking an ecological approach to outdoor lighting is unusual, we have observed that if the nocturnal environment is preserved for wildlife, it is usually sufficient for astronomy. Although it is understood that observatories may require a curfew during the three weeks centred on the new Moon. This first paper will set the stage for this somewhat unorthodox exploration into light.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2945
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Author (up) Dick; R.
Title The Biological Basis for the Canadian Guideline for Outdoor Lighting 2--Impact of the Brightness of Light. Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada Abbreviated Journal
Volume 114 Issue 5 Pages 205-210
Keywords Vison; Biology
Abstract One of the most obvious attributes of light is brightness. This paper will address specific brightness thresholds that have been found to impact animal health and behaviour, including humans. However, the meaning of brightness is vague and must be further refined and quantified. This paper will introduce and define these terms and will discuss the sensitivity of wildlife biology and behaviour to levels of luminance and illuminance. It may not be apparent from the common metrics used for “brightness” that a lamp will impact the ecosystem or human health. Our focus is on biology, which depends on the energy carried by the light, or its spectrum, and not strictly its apparent brightness. However, the subject of spectrum will be deferred to the third paper in this series.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3164
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