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Author (up) Ciach, M.; Fröhlich, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Habitat type, food resources, noise and light pollution explain the species composition, abundance and stability of a winter bird assemblage in an urban environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Urban Ecosystems Abbreviated Journal Urban Ecosyst  
  Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 547-559  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract At present, urban areas cover almost 3% of the Earth’s terrestrial area, and this proportion is constantly increasing. Although urbanization leads to a decline in biodiversity, at the same time it creates extensive habitats that are exploited by an assemblage of organisms, including birds. The species composition and density of birds nesting in towns and cities are determined by the types of buildings, the structure and maturity of urban greenery, and habitat diversity. In contrast, the habitat traits shaping the community of birds wintering in urban areas are not known. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of habitat structure, food resources and the urban effects (pollution, noise, artificial light) on an assemblage of birds overwintering in an urban area. It was carried out in 2014 and 2015 in the city of Kraków (southern Poland), on 56 randomly chosen sample plots, in which the composition, density and interseasonal similarity of bird assemblage were assessed with line transect method. A total of 64 bird species (mean = 17.7 ± 4.9 SD species/plot) was recorded. The mean density was 89.6 ind./km ±63.3 SD. The most numerous species were Great Tit Parus major, Magpie Pica pica, Blackbird Turdus merula, Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus, Rook Corvus frugilegus, Fieldfare Turdus pilaris and House Sparrow Passer domesticus. Noise adversely affected species numbers and density, but artificial light acted positively on the density of birds and their interseasonal stability. The species richness and density of birds were also determined by the number of food sources available (e.g. bird-feeders). In addition, the greater the proportion of open areas, the fewer species were recorded. In contrast, the more urban greenery there was, the greater the density of the entire bird assemblage. Urban infrastructure (buildings, roads, refuse tips) had a positive effect on the interseasonal stabilization of the species composition of wintering birds. The results of this work indicate that the urban effect, i.e. noise and light pollution, apart from purely habitat factors, provide a good explanation for the species richness, density and stability of bird assemblage wintering in urban areas.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1083-8155 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2444  
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Author (up) Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F. url  openurl
  Title A portable wide-field instrument for mapping night sky brightness automatically Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana Abbreviated Journal Mem. S.A. It.  
  Volume 74 Issue 2 Pages 458-459  
  Keywords Instrumentation; all-sky; photometry; sky brightness  
  Abstract We present a portable automatic instrument for monitoring night sky brightness and atmospherical transparency in astronomical photometrical bands. Main requirements were: fast and automatic coverage of the entire sky, lightness, transportability and quick set-up in order to take measurements from more sites in the same night, easily available commercial components and software to be reproduced by any interested institution, included amateurs astronomers groups.  
  Address Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell’Inquinamento Luminoso, Thiene, Italy  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Società Astronomica Italiana Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1824-016X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2243  
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Author (up) Ciocca, M.; Wang, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title By the light of the silvery Moon: fact and fiction Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Physics Education Abbreviated Journal Phys. Educ.  
  Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 360-367  
  Keywords Vision; moonlight; Purkinje effect; Purkinje shift; mesopic  
  Abstract Is moonlight 'silver' or 'cold'? In this paper we discuss the interesting combination of factors that contribute to the common descriptions of moonlight. Sunlight is reflected from the lunar surface and red-shifted. When traversing the atmosphere, moonlight is further depleted of short wavelength content by Rayleigh scattering. We measured the spectra of the moonlight to show these effects and compared them with sunlight. All measurements, including spectral reflectance, suggest that moonlight is redder than sunlight. The silvery Moon is just an illusion due to the properties and behaviour of our own eyes, including the responses of rods and cones and the physiological perceptive phenomenon called Purkinje shift.  
  Address Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY, USA E-mail: marco.ciocca(at)eku.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher IOP Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9120 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2227  
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Author (up) Clanton, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Opinion: Light pollution … is it important? Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology  
  Volume 46 Issue 1 Pages 4-4  
  Keywords Commentary  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2712  
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Author (up) Clanton, N.; Gibbons, R.; Garcia, J.; Barber, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Seattle LED Adaptive Lighting Study Type Report
  Year 2014 Publication Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Abbreviated Journal NEEA  
  Volume Issue E14-286 Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting; Planning; Vision  
  Abstract The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and the City of Seattle partnered to evaluate the future of solid state street lighting in the Pacific Northwest with a two-night demonstration in Seattle's Ballard neighborhood in March 2012. The study evaluates the effectiveness of LED streetlights on nighttime driver object detection visibility as function of light source spectral distribution (color temperature in degrees K) and light distribution. Clanton & Associates and VTTI also evaluated adaptive lighting (tuning of streetlights during periods of reduced vehicular and pedestrian activity) at three levels: one hundred percent of full light output, fifty percent of full light output, and twenty-five percent of full light output. The study, led by Clanton & Associates, Continuum Industries, and the VTTI, built upon previous visual performance studies conducted in Anchorage, Alaska; San Diego, California; and San Jose, California. The use of LED technology for city street lighting is becoming more widespread. While these lights are primarily touted for their energy efficiency, the combination of LEDs with advanced control technology, changes to lighting criteria, and a better understanding of human mesopic (low light level) visibility creates an enormous potential for energy savings and improved motorist and pedestrian visibility and safety. Data from these tests support the following statements: LED luminaires with a correlated color temperature of 4100K provide the highest detection distance, including statistically significantly better detection distance when compared to HPS luminaires of higher wattage. The non-uniformity of the lighting on the roadway surface provides a visibility enhancement and greater contrast for visibility. Contrast of objects, both positive and negative, is a better indicator of visibility than is average luminance level. Dimming the LED luminaires to fifty percent of IES RP-8 levels did not significantly reduce object detection distance in dry pavement conditions. Participants perceived dimming of sidewalks as less acceptable than dimming to the same level on the roadway. Asymmetric lighting did reduce glare and performed similarly to the symmetric lighting at the same color temperature (4100K).  
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  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1763  
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