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Author (up) Cronin, A.D.; Ryan, M.J.; Page, R.A.; Hunter, K.L.; Taylor, R.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Environmental heterogeneity alters mate choice behavior for multimodal signals Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav Ecol Sociobiol  
  Volume 73 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract nimals frequently experience changes in their environment, including diel and seasonal shifts in abiotic and biotic factors. In addition to physiological and morphological changes, animals alter their behavior in response to environmental variation. This study examined the impacts of heterogeneous environments on mating behaviors. We examined both male and female túngara frog phonotactic responses to multimodal (audiovisual) and unimodal (acoustic) stimuli. We altered aspects of the physical environment by changing substrate (terrestrial and aquatic) and ambient light levels. Females demonstrated a similar preference for the audiovisual stimulus regardless of substrate but decreased latency to choose in an aquatic environment. When ambient light levels were increased (relative to darker control), females reversed their preference, avoiding the multimodal stimulus, but the latency to choose was unchanged. Males demonstrated no preference for the multimodal signal on either substrate, but like females, male latency was reduced in an aquatic environment. Different environments carry their own associated costs, including varying levels of predation risk. Increased light levels and an aquatic environment likely carry higher predation risk and therefore should lead to changes in female and male responses. Interestingly, these two environments do not cause uniform changes in female responses. The addition of an aquatic environment led to a reduction in latency, whereas an increase in ambient light levels induced a change in female mate preference. These findings demonstrate the importance of the environment on mating responses to multimodal signals.  
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  ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2262  
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Author (up) Crumey, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Human Contrast Threshold and Astronomical Visibility. Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS  
  Volume 422 Issue 3 Pages 2600-2619  
  Keywords Vision; visibility; skyglow; sky brightness; modeling  
  Abstract The standard visibility model in light-pollution studies is the formula of Hecht, as used e.g. by Schaefer. However, it is applicable only to point sources and is shown to be of limited accuracy. A new visibility model is presented for uniform achromatic targets of any size against background luminances ranging from zero to full daylight, produced by a systematic procedure applicable to any appropriate data set (e.g. Blackwell's), and based on a simple but previously unrecognized empirical relation between contrast threshold and adaptation luminance. The scotopic luminance correction for variable spectral radiance (colour index) is calculated. For point sources, the model is more accurate than Hecht's formula and is verified using telescopic data collected at Mount Wilson in 1947, enabling the sky brightness at that time to be determined. The result is darker than the calculation by Garstang, implying that light pollution grew more rapidly in subsequent decades than has been supposed. The model is applied to the nebular observations of William Herschel, enabling his visual performance to be quantified. Proposals are made regarding sky quality indicators for public use.  
  Address Department of Humanities, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK; andrew.crumey(at)northumbria.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford Journals Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 536  
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Author (up) Czaczkes, T.J.; Bastidas-Urrutia, A.M.; Ghislandi, P.; Tuni, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reduced light avoidance in spiders from populations in light-polluted urban environments Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Die Naturwissenschaften Abbreviated Journal Naturwissenschaften  
  Volume 105 Issue 11-12 Pages 64  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Increased urbanisation is leading to a rise in light pollution. Light pollution can disrupt the behaviour and physiology of animals resulting in increased mortality. However, animals may also benefit from artificial light sources, as these may aggregate prey or signal suitable environments. For example, spiders are commonly seen congregating around artificial light sources. Changes in selective pressures engendered by urban environments are driving changes in urban organisms, driving better adaptation to these environments. Here, we ask whether urban populations of the synanthropic spider Steatoda triangulosa show different responses to light compared to rural populations. Egg-sacs from urban and rural populations were collected and incubated in a common garden setting, and the emerging spiderlings tested for light preference. While rural spiderlings avoided light (37% built webs in the light), urban spiderlings were indifferent to it (49% built webs in the light). Reduced light avoidance may benefit spiders through increased prey capture, increased movement into suitable habitats, or due to a release from selection pressure from visually hunting predators which do not enter buildings.  
  Address Department of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-1042 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30377809 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2140  
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Author (up) Czarnecka, M.; Kakareko, T.; Jermacz, Ł.; Pawlak, R.; Kobak, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Combined effects of nocturnal exposure to artificial light and habitat complexity on fish foraging Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume 684 Issue Pages 14-22  
  Keywords Animal; fishes; Perca fluviatilis; Gammarus fossarum; gammarids; aquatic ecosystems  
  Abstract Due to the widespread use of artificial light, freshwater ecosystems in urban areas at night are often subjected to light of intensities exceeding that of the moonlight. Nocturnal dim light could modify fish behaviour and benefit visual predators because of enhanced foraging success compared to dark nights. However, effects of nocturnal light could be mitigated by the presence of structured habitats providing refuges for prey. We tested in laboratory experiments whether nocturnal light of low intensity (2 lx) increases foraging efficiency of the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) on invertebrate prey (Gammarus fossarum). The tests were conducted at dusk and night under two light regimes: natural cycle with dark nights and disturbed cycle with artificially illuminated nights, in habitats differing in structural complexity: sand and woody debris. We found that nocturnal illumination significantly enhanced the consumption of gammarids by fish compared to dark nights. In addition, the perch was as effective predator in illuminated nights (2 lx) as at dusk (10 lx). Woody debris provided an effective refuge only in combination with undisturbed darkness, but not in illuminated nights. Our results suggest that nocturnal illumination in aquatic ecosystems may contribute to significant reductions in invertebrate population sizes through fish predation. The loss of darkness reduces the possibility of using shelters by invertebrates and hence the effects of elevated light levels at night could not be mitigated by an increased habitat complexity.  
  Address Department of Ecology and Biogeography, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland; mczarn(at)umk.pl  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor English Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2507  
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Author (up) Czeisler, C.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Housing Immigrant Children – The Inhumanity of Constant Illumination Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 379 Issue 2 Pages e3  
  Keywords Human Health; Commentary  
  Abstract  
  Address From the Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and the Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School – both in Boston  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-4793 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29932841 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1942  
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