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Author (up) Davies, T.W.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title The nature, extent, and ecological implications of marine light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Abbreviated Journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 347-355
Keywords Ecology; light pollution; oceans; marine; ecology; ecosystem; Review
Abstract Despite centuries of use, artificial light at night has only recently been recognized as a cause for environmental concern. Its global extent and ongoing encroachment into naturally lit ecosystems has sparked scientific interest into the many ways in which it may negatively affect human health, societal attitudes, scientific endeavors, and biological processes. Yet, perhaps because sources of artificial light are largely land based, the potential for artificial light pollution to interfere with the biology of the ocean has not been explored in any detail. There is little information on how light pollution affects those species, behaviors, and interactions that are informed by the intensity, spectra, and periodicity of natural nighttime light in marine ecosystems. Here, we provide an overview of the extent of marine light pollution, discuss how it changes the physical environment, and explore its potential role in shaping marine ecosystems.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Cornwall, UK
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1540-9295 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 365
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Author (up) Davies, T.W.; McKee, D.; Fishwick, J.; Tidau, S.; Smyth, T.
Title Biologically important artificial light at night on the seafloor Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 12545
Keywords Ecology; Skyglow; Remote Sensing
Abstract Accelerating coastal development is increasing the exposure of marine ecosystems to nighttime light pollution, but is anthropogenic light reaching the seafloor in sufficient quantities to have ecological impacts? Using a combination of mapping, and radiative transfer modelling utilising in situ measurements of optical seawater properties, we quantified artificial light exposure at the sea surface, beneath the sea surface, and at the sea floor of an urbanised temperate estuary bordered by an LED lit city. Up to 76% of the three-dimensional seafloor area was exposed to biologically important light pollution. Exposure to green wavelengths was highest, while exposure to red wavelengths was nominal. We conclude that light pollution from coastal cities is likely having deleterious impacts on seafloor ecosystems which provide vital ecosystem services. A comprehensive understanding of these impacts is urgently needed.
Address Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Devon, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32719492; PMCID:PMC7385152 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3071
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Author (up) Davies, T.W.; Smyth, T.
Title Why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol
Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 872-882
Keywords Commentary; Animals; Plants
Abstract The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century. Our reasons extend beyond those concerned principally with the environment, to also include impacts on human health, culture and biodiversity conservation more generally. We conclude that the growing use of night-time lighting will continue to raise numerous ecological, human health and cultural issues, but that opportunities exist to mitigate its impacts by combining novel technologies with sound scientific evidence. The potential gains from appropriate management extend far beyond those for the environment, indeed it may play a key role in transitioning towards a more sustainable society.
Address Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Devon, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29124824 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2054
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Author (up) Davoudian, N.
Title Background lighting clutters: how do they affect visual saliency of urban objects? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation
Volume 5 Issue 1-2 Pages 95-103
Keywords Vision
Abstract The current study aims to create some general guidance for designers to better understand the impact of background lighting in their design and as a result minimize its effect on the visual saliency of urban objects. There are few studies about how lighting clutters can affect and decrease the visual saliency of illuminated urban objects at night. Lack of information in this area has resulted in increasing luminance to be recognized as one of the main tools to enhance the saliency of urban objects at night. To address this matter a study was performed to investigate the effect of proximity of lighting clutters on visual saliency of urban objects. A forced choice pair comparison method was employed, in which two test images of an urban object in different conditions of luminance contrast and proximity of light patterns were compared. Test participants reported in which image the target appeared more salient. Results show there is a progressive increase in saliency value by increasing the gap between the target and the background lighting when the luminance contrast of the target is three or higher. However, the critical area around the object with the highest effect lies between 0.5° and 1° visual angle. Removing light patterns beyond that point creates negligible effect. The findings of this study could inform development of future models of visual recognition in the road environment, models which can address the important effects of environmental context in addition to photometric variables (luminance and contrast) that are the only factors considered in traditional models of ‘Visibility Level.’
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2165-0349 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2527
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Author (up) Davoudian, N.; Raynham, P.; Barrett, E.
Title Disability glare: A study in simulated road lighting conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 46 Issue 6 Pages 695-705
Keywords Vision
Abstract Disability glare is associated with veiling luminance caused by light from bright sources being scattered within the eyes of observers, thereby reducing retinal luminance contrast. This study compares the reduction in observers’ performance in the presence of glare with veiling luminance in the eye, calculated using a non-subjective method. A total of 42 observers performed a target detection task in the presence of a glare source in conditions similar to street lighting at night. Luminance contrast thresholds were measured for each observer under different levels of glare. Results show that, while veiling luminance has a significant effect on the performance of observers, its effect is lower than expected from contrast loss. Furthermore, the performance of observers over the age of 50 is unaffected by increasing the glare level.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2526
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