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Author (up) Dimovski, A.M.; Robert, K.A.
Title Artificial light pollution: Shifting spectral wavelengths to mitigate physiological and health consequences in a nocturnal marsupial mammal Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol
Volume 329 Issue 8-9 Pages 497-505
Keywords Animals; Lighting
Abstract The focus of sustainable lighting tends to be on reduced CO2 emissions and cost savings, but not on the wider environmental effects. Ironically, the introduction of energy-efficient lighting, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), may be having a great impact on the health of wildlife. These white LEDs are generated with a high content of short-wavelength 'blue' light. While light of any kind can suppress melatonin and the physiological processes it regulates, these short wavelengths are potent suppressors of melatonin. Here, we manipulated the spectral composition of LED lights and tested their capacity to mitigate the physiological and health consequences associated with their use. We experimentally investigated the impact of white LEDs (peak wavelength 448 nm; mean irradiance 2.87 W/m(2) ), long-wavelength shifted amber LEDs (peak wavelength 605 nm; mean irradiance 2.00 W/m(2) ), and no lighting (irradiance from sky glow < 0.37 x 10(-3) W/m(2) ), on melatonin production, lipid peroxidation, and circulating antioxidant capacity in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Night-time melatonin and oxidative status were determined at baseline and again following 10 weeks exposure to light treatments. White LED exposed wallabies had significantly suppressed nocturnal melatonin compared to no light and amber LED exposed wallabies, while there was no difference in lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant capacity declined from baseline to week 10 under all treatments. These results provide further evidence that short-wavelength light at night is a potent suppressor of nocturnal melatonin. Importantly, we also illustrate that shifting the spectral output to longer wavelengths could mitigate these negative physiological impacts.
Address Department of Ecology, Environment and Evolution, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2471-5638 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29722167 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1888
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Author (up) Do, Q.-T.; Shapiro, J.N.; Elvidge, C.D.; Abdel-Jelil, M.; Ahn, D.P.; Baugh, K.; Hansen-Lewis, J.; Zhizhin, M.; Bazilian, M.D.
Title Terrorism, geopolitics, and oil security: Using remote sensing to estimate oil production of the Islamic State Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Energy Research & Social Science Abbreviated Journal Energy Research & Social Science
Volume 44 Issue Pages 411-418
Keywords Remote Sensing; Economics
Abstract As the world’s most traded commodity, oil production is typically well monitored and analyzed. It also has established links to geopolitics, international relations, and security. Despite this attention, the illicit production, refining, and trade of oil and derivative products occur all over the world and provide significant revenues outside of the oversight and regulation of governments. A prominent manifestation of this phenomenon is how terrorist and insurgent organizations—including the Islamic State group, also known as ISIL/ISIS or Daesh—use oil as a revenue source. Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in production can help determine the scale of operations, technical capacity, and revenue streams. This information, in turn, can inform both security and reconstruction strategies. To this end, we use satellite multi-spectral imaging and ground-truth pre-war output data to effectively construct a real-time census of oil production in areas controlled by the ISIL terrorist group. More broadly, remotely measuring the activity of extractive industries in conflict-affected areas without reliable administrative data can support a broad range of public policy and decisions and military operations.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2214-6296 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1864
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Author (up) Doleac, J.L.; Sanders, N.J.
Title Under the Cover of Darkness: How Ambient Light Influences Criminal Activity Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Review of Economics and Statistics Abbreviated Journal Review of Economics and Statistics
Volume 97 Issue 5 Pages 1093-1103
Keywords Public Safety; Crime
Abstract We exploit daylight saving time (DST) as an exogenous shock to daylight, using both the discontinuous nature of the policy and the 2007 extension of DST, to consider the impact of light on criminal activity.Regression discontinuity estimates show a 7% decrease in robberies following the shift to DST. As expected, effects are largest during the hours directly affected by the shift in daylight. We discuss our findings within the context of criminal decision making and labor supply, and estimate that the2007 DST extension resulted in $59 million in annual social cost savings from avoided robberies.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-6535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2836
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Author (up) Dominoni, D.M., Halfwerk, W., Baird, E. et al.
Title Why conservation biology can benefit from sensory ecology Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 4 Issue Pages 502-511
Keywords Conservation; Animals; Vision
Abstract Global expansion of human activities is associated with the introduction of novel stimuli, such as anthropogenic noise, artificial lights and chemical agents. Progress in documenting the ecological effects of sensory pollutants is weakened by sparse knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these effects. This severely limits our capacity to devise mitigation measures. Here, we integrate knowledge of animal sensory ecology, physiology and life history to articulate three perceptual mechanisms—masking, distracting and misleading—that clearly explain how and why anthropogenic sensory pollutants impact organisms. We then link these three mechanisms to ecological consequences and discuss their implications for conservation. We argue that this framework can reveal the presence of ‘sensory danger zones’, hotspots of conservation concern where sensory pollutants overlap in space and time with an organism’s activity, and foster development of strategic interventions to mitigate the impact of sensory pollutants. Future research that applies this framework will provide critical insight to preserve the natural sensory world.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2972
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Author (up) Dominoni, D.M.; Kjellberg Jensen, J.; de Jong, M.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K.
Title Artificial light at night, in interaction with spring temperature, modulates timing of reproduction in a passerine bird Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America Abbreviated Journal Ecol Appl
Volume Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals; Parus major; Alan; light pollution; phenology; timing of reproduction; urbanization
Abstract The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on phenological events such as reproductive timing is increasingly recognized. In birds, previous experiments under controlled conditions showed that ALAN strongly advances gonadal growth, but effects on egg-laying date are less clear. In particular, effects of ALAN on timing of egg-laying are found to be year-dependent, suggesting an interaction with climatic conditions such as spring temperature, which is known have strong effects on the phenology of avian breeding. Thus, we hypothesized that ALAN and temperature interact to regulate timing of reproduction in wild birds. Field studies have suggested that sources of ALAN rich in short wavelengths can lead to stronger advances in egg-laying date. We therefore tested this hypothesis in the great tit (Parus major), using a replicated experimental setup where eight previously unlit forest transects were illuminated with either white, green, or red LED light, or left dark as controls. We measured timing of egg-laying for 619 breeding events spread over six consecutive years and obtained temperature data for all sites and years. We detected overall significantly earlier egg-laying dates in the white and green light versus the dark treatment, and similar trends for red light. However, there was a strong inter-annual variability in mean egg-laying dates in all treatments, which was explained by spring temperature. We did not detect any fitness consequence of the changed timing of egg-laying due to ALAN, which suggests that advancing reproduction in response to ALAN might be adaptive.
Address Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31863538 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2805
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