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Author (up) Bennett, M.M.; Smith, L.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Advances in using multitemporal night-time lights satellite imagery to detect, estimate, and monitor socioeconomic dynamics Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 192 Issue Pages 176-197  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Since the late 1990s, remotely sensed night-time lights (NTL) satellite imagery has been shown to correlate with socioeconomic parameters including urbanization, economic activity, and population. More recent research demonstrates that multitemporal NTL data can serve as a reliable proxy for change over time in these variables whether they are increasing or decreasing. Time series analysis of NTL data is especially valuable for detecting, estimating, and monitoring socioeconomic dynamics in countries and subnational regions where reliable official statistics may be lacking. Until 2012, multitemporal NTL imagery came primarily from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program – Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS), for which digital imagery is available from 1992 to 2013. In October 2011, the launch of NASA/NOAA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite, whose Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor has a Day/Night Band (DNB) specifically designed for capturing radiance from the Earth at night, marked the start of a new era in NTL data collection and applications. In light of these advances, this paper reviews progress in using multitemporal DMSP-OLS and VIIRS imagery to analyze urbanization, economic, and population dynamics across a range of geographic scales. An overview of data corrections and processing for comparison of multitemporal NTL imagery is provided, followed by a meta-analysis and integrative synthesis of these studies. Figures are included that visualize the capabilities of DMSP-OLS and VIIRS to capture socioeconomic change in the post-Soviet Russian Far East and war-torn Syria, respectively. Finally, future directions for NTL research are suggested, particularly in the areas of determining the fundamental causes of observed light and in leveraging VIIRS' superior sensitivity and spatial and radiometric resolution.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2024  
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Author (up) Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Cruse, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Lewis, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night causes top-down and bottom-up trophic effects on invertebrate populations Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 2698-2706  
  Keywords Ecology; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract Globally, many ecosystems are exposed to artificial light at night. Nighttime lighting has direct biological impacts on species at all trophic levels. However, the effects of artificial light on biotic interactions remain, for the most part, to be determined.

We exposed experimental mesocosms containing combinations of grassland plants and invertebrate herbivores and predators to illumination at night over a 3‐year period to simulate conditions under different common forms of street lighting.

We demonstrate both top‐down (predation‐controlled) and bottom‐up (resource‐controlled) impacts of artificial light at night in grassland communities. The impacts on invertebrate herbivore abundance were wavelength‐dependent and mediated via other trophic levels.

White LED lighting decreased the abundance of a generalist herbivore mollusc by 55% in the presence of a visual predator, but not in its absence, while monochromatic amber light (with a peak wavelength similar to low‐pressure sodium lighting) decreased abundance of a specialist herbivore aphid (by 17%) by reducing the cover and flower abundance of its main food plant in the system. Artificial white light also significantly increased the food plant's foliar carbon to nitrogen ratio.

We conclude that exposure to artificial light at night can trigger ecological effects spanning trophic levels, and that the nature of such impacts depends on the wavelengths emitted by the lighting technology employed.

Policy implications. Our results confirm that artificial light at night, at illuminance levels similar to roadside vegetation, can have population effects mediated by both top‐down and bottom‐up effects on ecosystems. Given the increasing ubiquity of light pollution at night, these impacts may be widespread in the environment. These results underline the importance of minimizing ecosystem disruption by reducing light pollution in natural and seminatural ecosystems.
 
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2086  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bensch, G.; Peters, J.; Sievert, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The lighting transition in rural Africa — From kerosene to battery-powered LED and the emerging disposal problem Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Energy for Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal Energy for Sustainable Development  
  Volume 39 Issue Pages 13-20  
  Keywords Lighting; Energy  
  Abstract People without electricity access, numbering today more than 500 million in rural Africa alone, have been using dim and sooty kerosene lamps and candles for their lighting purposes for decades. In the present paper, current lighting usage patterns are systematically assessed using detailed new survey data from seven countries across Sub-Saharan Africa. The data makes evident that a transition has taken place in recent years, both unnoticed by and without external support from governmental or non-governmental organizations: the rural population without electricity in Africa has replaced kerosene lights and candles by simple, yet more efficient and cleaner LED lamps powered by non-rechargeable batteries. Nevertheless, we also show that the discharged batteries are generally disposed of inappropriately in latrines or the nature. The toxic content of many dry-cell batteries and their accumulation at local litter hotspots may have harmful repercussions on health and the environment. We conclude by suggesting that rapid action is needed to, first, install an effective monitoring system on batteries that enter the continent and, second, put in place an appropriate waste management system.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0973-0826 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2193  
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Author (up) Beresford, A.E.; Donald, P.F.; Buchanan, G.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Repeatable and standardised monitoring of threats to Key Biodiversity Areas in Africa using Google Earth Engine Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Ecological Indicators Abbreviated Journal Ecological Indicators  
  Volume 109 Issue Pages 105763  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are sites that make significant contributions to the global persistence of biodiversity, but identification of sites alone is not sufficient to ensure their conservation. Monitoring is essential if pressures on these sites are to be identified, priorities set and appropriate responses developed. Here, we describe how analysis of freely available data on a cloud-processing platform (Google Earth Engine) can be used to assess changes in three example remotely sensed threat indicators (fire frequency, tree loss and night-time lights) over time on KBAs in Africa. We develop easily repeatable methods with shared code that could be applied across any geographic area and could be adapted and applied to other datasets as they become available. Fire frequency was found to have increased significantly on 12.4% of KBAs and 15.9% of ecoregions, whilst rates of forest loss increased significantly on 24.3% of KBAs and 22.6% of ecoregions. There was also evidence of significant increases in night-time lights on over half (53.3%) of KBAs and 39.6% of ecoregions between 1992 and 2013, and on 11.6% of KBAs and 53.0% of ecoregions between 2014 and 2018.  
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  ISSN 1470160X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2707  
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Author (up) Berge, J.; Geoffroy, M.; Daase, M.; Cottier, F.; Priou, P.; Cohen, J.H.; Johnsen, G.; McKee, D.; Kostakis, I.; Renaud, P.E.; Vogedes, D.; Anderson, P.; Last, K.S.; Gauthier, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light during the polar night disrupts Arctic fish and zooplankton behaviour down to 200 m depth Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Communications Biology Abbreviated Journal Commun Biol  
  Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages article 102  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract For organisms that remain active in one of the last undisturbed and pristine dark environments on the planet—the Arctic Polar Night—the moon, stars and aurora borealis may provide important cues to guide distribution and behaviours, including predator-prey interactions. With a changing climate and increased human activities in the Arctic, such natural light sources will in many places be masked by the much stronger illumination from artificial light. Here we show that normal working-light from a ship may disrupt fish and zooplankton behaviour down to at least 200 m depth across an area of >0.125 km2 around the ship. Both the quantitative and qualitative nature of the disturbance differed between the examined regions. We conclude that biological surveys in the dark from illuminated ships may introduce biases on biological sampling, bioacoustic surveys, and possibly stock assessments of commercial and non-commercial species.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2399-3642 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2837  
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