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Author (up) Bhardwaj, M.; Soanes, K.; Lahoz-Monfort, J.J.; Lumsden, L.F.; van der Ree, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial lighting reduces the effectiveness of wildlife-crossing structures for insectivorous bats Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Management  
  Volume 262 Issue Pages 110313  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract In an attempt to improve cost-effectiveness, it has become increasingly popular to adapt wildlife crossing structures to enable people to also use them for safe passage across roads. However, the required needs of humans and wildlife may conflict, resulting in a structure that does not actually provide the perceived improvement in cost-effectiveness, but instead a reduction in conservation benefits. For example, lighting within crossing structures for human safety at night may reduce use of the structure by nocturnal wildlife, thus contributing to barrier and mortality effects of roads rather than mitigating them.

In this study, we experimentally evaluated the impact of artificial light at night on the rate of use of wildlife crossing structures, specifically underpasses, by ten insectivorous bat species groups in south-eastern Australia. We monitored bat activity before, during and after artificially lighting the underpasses. We found that bats tended to avoided lit underpasses, and only one species consistently showed attraction to the light. Artificial light at night in underpasses hypothetically increases the vulnerability of bats to road-mortality or to the barrier effect of roads. The most likely outcomes of lighting underpasses were 1. an increase in crossing rate above the freeway and a decrease under the underpasses, or 2. a reduction in crossing rate both above freeways and under the underpasses, when structures were lit. Our results corroborate those of studies on terrestrial mammals, and thus we recommend that underpasses intended to facilitate the movement of wildlife across roads should not be lit.
 
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  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2846  
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Author (up) Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Fluctuations in anthropogenic nighttime lights from satellite imagery for five cities in Niger and Nigeria Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Data Abbreviated Journal Sci Data  
  Volume 5 Issue Pages 180256  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Dynamic measures of human populations are critical for global health management but are often overlooked, largely because they are difficult to quantify. Measuring human population dynamics can be prohibitively expensive in under-resourced communities. Satellite imagery can provide measurements of human populations, past and present, to complement public health analyses and interventions. We used anthropogenic illumination from publicly accessible, serial satellite nighttime images as a quantifiable proxy for seasonal population variation in five urban areas in Niger and Nigeria. We identified population fluxes as the mechanistic driver of regional seasonal measles outbreaks. Our data showed 1) urban illumination fluctuated seasonally, 2) corresponding population fluctuations were sufficient to drive seasonal measles outbreaks, and 3) overlooking these fluctuations during vaccination activities resulted in below-target coverage levels, incapable of halting transmission of the virus. We designed immunization solutions capable of achieving above-target coverage of both resident and mobile populations. Here, we provide detailed data on brightness from 2000-2005 for 5 cities in Niger and Nigeria and detailed methodology for application to other populations.  
  Address WorldPop, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Southampton; Flowminder Foundation, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2052-4463 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30422123; PMCID:PMC6233255 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2769  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bharti, N.; Tatem, A.J.; Ferrari, M.J.; Grais, R.F.; Djibo, A.; Grenfell, B.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Explaining seasonal fluctuations of measles in Niger using nighttime lights imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 334 Issue 6061 Pages 1424-1427  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Human Health; Cities; Emigration and Immigration; Epidemics; *Epidemiologic Methods; Humans; Light; Measles/*epidemiology/transmission; Niger/epidemiology; *Population Density; Remote Sensing Technology; *Seasons; Spacecraft  
  Abstract Measles epidemics in West Africa cause a significant proportion of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality. Epidemics are strongly seasonal, but the drivers of these fluctuations are poorly understood, which limits the predictability of outbreaks and the dynamic response to immunization. We show that measles seasonality can be explained by spatiotemporal changes in population density, which we measure by quantifying anthropogenic light from satellite imagery. We find that measles transmission and population density are highly correlated for three cities in Niger. With dynamic epidemic models, we demonstrate that measures of population density are essential for predicting epidemic progression at the city level and improving intervention strategies. In addition to epidemiological applications, the ability to measure fine-scale changes in population density has implications for public health, crisis management, and economic development.  
  Address Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. nbharti@princeton.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22158822; PMCID:PMC3891598 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2770  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Bhukya, K. A., Ramasubbareddy, S., Govinda, K., & Srinivas, T. A. S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Adaptive Mechanism for Smart Street Lighting System Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Smart Intelligent Computing and Applications Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 160 Issue Pages 69-76  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract The adaptive street light has the ability to adapt to the motion of cycles, cars and pedestrians. It uses motion as well as light sensors to detect the traffic and light around. It dims when there is no movement on the road, and is brightened when there is any activity. Smart street lights are very dissimilar from the old methods of lighting. It is an automated system that will be able to automate the streets. The main objective of these lights is to decrease the utilization of power, while no activity is detected on the street. It will be switched ON while there are pedestrians and cars on the street or else they will get dimmed to 20% of the brightness. The proposed approach gives a method to conserve power by using the PIR sensors to sense the incoming traffic and hence turning ON a cluster of lights surrounding the traffic. As the traffic is passing by, the street lights left behind will dim on its own. Hence, a lot of power can be conserved. Also, during the day time when there is no need of light the LDR sensor will sense the light and the light will remain switched OFF. This smart street light system comes under the domain of smart city.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2723  
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Author (up) Bian, Z.; Yang, Q.; Li, T.; Cheng, R.; Barnett, Y.; Lu, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Study of the beneficial effects of green light on lettuce grown under short-term continuous red and blue light-emitting diodes Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Physiologia Plantarum Abbreviated Journal Physiol Plant  
  Volume 164 Issue 2 Pages 226-240  
  Keywords Plants  
  Abstract Red and blue light are the most important light spectra for driving photosynthesis to produce adequate crop yield. It is also believed that green light may contribute to adaptations to growth. However, the effects of green light, which can trigger specific and necessary responses of plant growth, have been underestimated in the past. In this study, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was exposed to different continuous light (CL) conditions for 48 h by a combination of red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) supplemented with or without green LEDs, in an environmental-controlled growth chamber. Green light supplementation enhanced photosynthetic capacity by increasing net photosynthetic rates (Pn ), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv /Fm ), electron transport for carbon fixation (JPSII ) and chlorophyll content in plants under the CL treatment. Green light decreased malondialdehyde and H2 O2 accumulation by increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) after 24 h of CL. Supplemental green light significantly increased the expression of photosynthetic genes LHCb and PsbA from 6 to 12 h, and these gene expression were maintained at higher levels than those under other light conditions between 12 and 24 h. However, a notable down-regulation of both LHCb and PsbA was observed during 24 to 48 h. These results indicate that the effects of green light on lettuce plant growth, via enhancing activity of particular components of antioxidantive enzyme system and promoting of LHCb and PsbA expression to maintain higher photosynthetic capacity, alleviated a number of the negative effects caused by CL.  
  Address School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Science, Brackenhurst Campus, Nottingham Trent University, NG25 0QF, UK  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9317 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29493775 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1905  
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