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Author (up) Davidovic, M.; Djokic, L.; Cabarkapa, A.; Kostic, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Warm white versus neutral white LED street lighting: Pedestrians' impressions Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology  
  Volume in press Issue Pages 147715351880429  
  Keywords Psychology; Security  
  Abstract The subjective impressions of pedestrians are necessary in order to decide on the appropriate colour of light to be used for street lighting. Therefore, a pilot project aimed to compare subjective evaluations of the sidewalk illumination under two street lighting installations, realised by LEDs of 3000 K (warm white) and 4000 K (neutral white), was recently conducted in Belgrade. Both installations had comparable sidewalk illuminances as well as other relevant photometric parameters. The evaluation was done through a questionnaire. A group of 139 (61 male and 78 female) respondents, all of them university students, was asked to grade both lighting installations for the sidewalk light intensity, the appearance of human faces, the colour of light and the colour rendering as well as the overall impression. According to the median values, the 3000 K LED installation was considered better than the 4000 K installation for all aspects assessed as well as the overall impression. Although the survey results convincingly showed a preference for 3000 K LEDs for this comparison, additional research is needed using a more representative sample of people and a wider range of locations before a definite conclusion can be reached.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2045  
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Author (up) Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Cruse, D.; Blumgart, D.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Multiple night-time light-emitting diode lighting strategies impact grassland invertebrate assemblages Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 23 Issue 7 Pages 2641-2648  
  Keywords Ecology; grasslands; LED  
  Abstract White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are rapidly replacing conventional outdoor lighting technologies around the world. Despite rising concerns over their impact on the environment and human health, the flexibility of LEDs has been advocated as a means of mitigating the ecological impacts of globally widespread outdoor night-time lighting through spectral manipulation, dimming and switching lights off during periods of low demand. We conducted a three-year field experiment in which each of these lighting strategies was simulated in a previously artificial light naive grassland ecosystem. White LEDs both increased the total abundance and changed the assemblage composition of adult spiders and beetles. Dimming LEDs by 50% or manipulating their spectra to reduce ecologically damaging wavelengths partially reduced the number of commoner species affected from seven to four. A combination of dimming by 50% and switching lights off between midnight and 04:00 am showed the most promise for reducing the ecological costs of LEDs, but the abundances of two otherwise common species were still affected. The environmental consequences of using alternative lighting technologies are increasingly well established. These results suggest that while management strategies using LEDs can be an effective means of reducing the number of taxa affected, averting the ecological impacts of night-time lighting may ultimately require avoiding its use altogether.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28139040 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1634  
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Author (up) Davies, T.W.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The nature, extent, and ecological implications of marine light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment Abbreviated Journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 347-355  
  Keywords Ecology; light pollution; oceans; marine; ecology; ecosystem; Review  
  Abstract Despite centuries of use, artificial light at night has only recently been recognized as a cause for environmental concern. Its global extent and ongoing encroachment into naturally lit ecosystems has sparked scientific interest into the many ways in which it may negatively affect human health, societal attitudes, scientific endeavors, and biological processes. Yet, perhaps because sources of artificial light are largely land based, the potential for artificial light pollution to interfere with the biology of the ocean has not been explored in any detail. There is little information on how light pollution affects those species, behaviors, and interactions that are informed by the intensity, spectra, and periodicity of natural nighttime light in marine ecosystems. Here, we provide an overview of the extent of marine light pollution, discuss how it changes the physical environment, and explore its potential role in shaping marine ecosystems.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Cornwall, UK  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1540-9295 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 365  
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Author (up) Davies, T.W.; Smyth, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 872-882  
  Keywords Commentary; Animals; Plants  
  Abstract The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century. Our reasons extend beyond those concerned principally with the environment, to also include impacts on human health, culture and biodiversity conservation more generally. We conclude that the growing use of night-time lighting will continue to raise numerous ecological, human health and cultural issues, but that opportunities exist to mitigate its impacts by combining novel technologies with sound scientific evidence. The potential gains from appropriate management extend far beyond those for the environment, indeed it may play a key role in transitioning towards a more sustainable society.  
  Address Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, Devon, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29124824 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2054  
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Author (up) Davoudian, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Background lighting clutters: how do they affect visual saliency of urban objects? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation  
  Volume 5 Issue 1-2 Pages 95-103  
  Keywords Vision  
  Abstract The current study aims to create some general guidance for designers to better understand the impact of background lighting in their design and as a result minimize its effect on the visual saliency of urban objects. There are few studies about how lighting clutters can affect and decrease the visual saliency of illuminated urban objects at night. Lack of information in this area has resulted in increasing luminance to be recognized as one of the main tools to enhance the saliency of urban objects at night. To address this matter a study was performed to investigate the effect of proximity of lighting clutters on visual saliency of urban objects. A forced choice pair comparison method was employed, in which two test images of an urban object in different conditions of luminance contrast and proximity of light patterns were compared. Test participants reported in which image the target appeared more salient. Results show there is a progressive increase in saliency value by increasing the gap between the target and the background lighting when the luminance contrast of the target is three or higher. However, the critical area around the object with the highest effect lies between 0.5° and 1° visual angle. Removing light patterns beyond that point creates negligible effect. The findings of this study could inform development of future models of visual recognition in the road environment, models which can address the important effects of environmental context in addition to photometric variables (luminance and contrast) that are the only factors considered in traditional models of ‘Visibility Level.’  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2165-0349 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2527  
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