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Author (up) Bailey, L.A.; Brigham, R.M.; Bohn, S.J.; Boyles, J.G.; Smit, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An experimental test of the allotonic frequency hypothesis to isolate the effects of light pollution on bat prey selection Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract Artificial lights may be altering interactions between bats and moth prey. According to the allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH), eared moths are generally unavailable as prey for syntonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies between 20 and 50 kHz within the hearing range of eared moths) due to the moths' ability to detect syntonic bat echolocation. Syntonic bats therefore feed mainly on beetles, flies, true bugs, and non-eared moths. The AFH is expected to be violated around lights where eared moths are susceptible to exploitation by syntonic bats because moths' evasive strategies become less effective. The hypothesis has been tested to date almost exclusively in areas with permanent lighting, where the effects of lights on bat diets are confounded with other aspects of human habitat alteration. We undertook diet analysis in areas with short-term, localized artificial lighting to isolate the effects of artificial lighting and determine if syntonic and allotonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies outside the hearing range of eared moths) consumed more moths under conditions of artificial lights than in natural darkness. We found that syntonic bats increased their consumption of moth prey under experimentally lit conditions, likely owing to a reduction in the ability of eared moths to evade the bats. Eared moths may increase in diets of generalist syntonic bats foraging around artificial light sources, as opposed to allotonic species and syntonic species with a more specialized diet.  
  Address Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa. b.smit@ru.ac.za  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31139944 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2511  
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Author (up) Bapary, M.A.J.; Takano, J.-I.; Soma, S.; Sankai, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of blue LED light and antioxidants potential in a somatic cell Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Cell Biology International Abbreviated Journal Cell Biol Int  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Cells; Biology  
  Abstract Light is an indispensable part of routine laboratory works in which conventional light is generally used. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have come to replace the conventional light thus could be a potent target in biomedical studies. Since blue light is a major component of visible light wavelength, in this study, using a somatic cell from African green monkey kidney, we assessed the possible consequences of blue spectra of LED light in future animal experiments and proposed a potent mitigation against light induced damages. COS-7 cells were exposed to blue LED light (450 nm) and the growth and DNA damage were assessed at different exposure times. A higher suppression in cell growth and viability was observed under a longer period of blue LED light exposure. The number of apoptotic cells increased as light exposure time was prolonged. Reactive oxygen species generation was also elevated in accordance to the extension of light exposure times. A comparison to dark-maintained cells revealed that the upregulation of ROS by blue LED light plays a significant role in causing cellular dysfunction in DNA in a time-dependent manner. In turn, antioxidant treatment has shown to improve the cell growth and viability under blue LED light conditions. This indicates that antioxidants are potential against blue LED light-induced somatic cell damage. It is expected that this study will contribute to the understanding of the basic mechanism of somatic cell death under visible light and to maximize the beneficial use of LED light in future animal experiments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Ibaraki, Japan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1065-6995 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30958611 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2328  
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Author (up) Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Naked-eye astronomy: optics of the starry night skies Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Proc. SPIE 9289, 12th Education and Training in Optics and Photonics Conference, 2014 Abbreviated Journal Proc. SPIE 9289  
  Volume 9289 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Society; light pollution  
  Abstract The world at night offers a wealth of stimuli and opportunities as a resource for Optics education, at all age levels and from any (formal, non formal or informal) perspective. The starry sky and the urban nightscape provide a unique combination of pointlike sources with extremely different emission spectra and brightness levels on a generally darker, locally homogeneous background. This fact, combined with the particular characteristics of the human visual system under mesopic and scotopic conditions, provides a perfect setting for experiencing first-hand different optical phenomena of increasing levels of complexity: from the eye's point spread function to the luminance contrast threshold for source detection, from basic diffraction patterns to the intricate irradiance fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence. Looking at the nightscape is also a perfect occasion to raise awareness on the increasing levels of light pollution associated to the misuse of public and private artificial light at night, to promote a sustainable use of lighting, and to take part in worldwide citizen science campaigns. Last but not least, night sky observing activities can be planned and developed following a very flexible schedule, allowing individual students to carry them out from home and sharing the results in the classroom as well as organizing social events and night star parties with the active engagement of families and groups of the local community. This contribution describes these possibilities and introduces some of the free resources available to put them in practice.  
  Address Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, Spain; salva.bara@usc.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SPIE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1134  
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Author (up) Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution and solid-state lighting: reducing the carbon dioxide footprint is not enough Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Proc. SPIE 8785, 8th Iberoamerican Optics Meeting and 11th Latin American Meeting on Optics, Lasers, and Applications, 87852G, 2013 Abbreviated Journal Proc. SPIE 8785  
  Volume 8785 Issue Pages  
  Keywords *Lighting; LED; light emitting diode; outdoor lighting; artificial light at night; lighting policy; solid-state lighting; blue light  
  Abstract Public and private lighting account for a relevant share of the overall electric power consumption worldwide. The pressing need of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions as well as of lowering the lumen•hour price tag has fostered the search for alternative lighting technologies to substitute for the incandescent and gas-discharge based lamps. The most successful approach to date, solid-state lighting, is already finding its way into the public lighting market, very often helped by substantial public investments and support. LED-based sources have distinct advantages: under controlled conditions their efficacy equals or surpasses that of conventional solutions, their small source size allows for an efficient collimation of the lightbeam (delivering the photons where they are actually needed and reducing lightspill on the surrounding areas), and they can be switched and/or dimmed on demand at very high rates, thus allowing for a tailored schedule of lighting. However, energy savings and carbon dioxide reduction are not the only crucial issues faced by present day lighting. A growing body of research has shown the significance of the spectral composition of light when it comes to assess the detrimental effects of artificial light-at-night (ALAN). The potential ALAN blueshift associated to the deployment of LED-based lighting systems has raised sensible concerns about its scientific, cultural, ecological and public health consequences, which can be further amplified if an increased light consumption is produced due to the rebound effect. This contribution addresses some of the challenges that these issues pose to the Optics and Photonics community.  
  Address Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, Spain; salva.bara@usc.es  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SPIE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1135  
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Author (up) Bará, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in urban and rural areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.  
  Volume 3 Issue 10 Pages 160541  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The growing emissions of artificial light to the atmosphere are producing, among other effects, a significant increase of the night sky brightness (NSB) above its expected natural values. A permanent sensor network has been deployed in Galicia (northwest of Iberian peninsula) to monitor the anthropogenic disruption of the night sky darkness in a countrywide area. The network is composed of 14 detectors integrated in automated weather stations of MeteoGalicia, the Galician public meteorological agency. Zenithal NSB readings are taken every minute and the results are openly available in real time for researchers, interested stakeholders and the public at large through a dedicated website. The measurements allow one to assess the extent of the loss of the natural night in urban, periurban, transition and dark rural sites, as well as its daily and monthly time courses. Two metrics are introduced here to characterize the disruption of the night darkness across the year: the significant magnitude (m1/3) and the moonlight modulation factor (γ). The significant magnitude shows that in clear and moonless nights the zenithal night sky in the analysed urban settings is typically 14–23 times brighter than expected from a nominal natural dark sky. This factor lies in the range 7–8 in periurban sites, 1.6–2.5 in transition regions and 0.8–1.6 in rural and mountain dark sky places. The presence of clouds in urban areas strongly enhances the amount of scattered light, easily reaching amplification factors in excess of 25, in comparison with the light scattered in the same places under clear sky conditions. The periodic NSB modulation due to the Moon, still clearly visible in transition and rural places, is barely notable at periurban locations and is practically lost at urban sites.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1544  
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