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Author Bullough, J.D.; Bierman, A.; Rea, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluating the Blue-Light Hazard from Solid State Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics : JOSE Abbreviated Journal Int J Occup Saf Ergon  
  Volume 25 Issue 2 Pages 311-320  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Purpose New light sources including light emitting diodes (LEDs) have elicited questions about retinal damage, including the blue-light hazard. Some organizations have recommended avoiding using LEDs with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) exceeding 3000 K, since they tend to produce greater short-wavelength energy. This paper provides quantitative comparisons among light sources and use cases as they affect blue-light hazard. Methods The spectral radiant power characteristics of incandescent, fluorescent, LED and daylight sources were evaluated in terms of blue-light hazard using standard procedures for phakic, aphakic and pseudophakic eyes. Results Under most use cases, LEDs do not exhibit greater risk for blue-light hazard than other sources (e.g., incandescent). Because they generally produce little-to-no ultraviolet energy, LEDs often present less risk to aphakic eyes. Conclusions LEDs present no special concerns for blue-light hazard over some other common sources in typical use cases because photophobic responses limit exposure to bright sources. Where photophobic responses might not occur (e.g., eye surgery patients or premature infants) or where individuals suppress these responses (e.g., stage actors), caution is necessary. Evidence remains inconsistent regarding the risk of human retinal damage from long-term exposures to light insufficient to reach acute blue-light hazard thresholds.  
  Address a Lighting Research Center , Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute , US  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition (up)  
  ISSN 1080-3548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28876164 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @; GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1720  
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Author Ouyang, J.Q.; de Jong, M.; van Grunsven, R.H.; Matson, K.D.; Haussmann, M.F.; Meerlo, P.; Visser, M.; Spoelstra, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title What type of rigorous experiments are needed to investigate the impact of artificial light at night on individuals and populations? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 23 Issue 12 Pages e9-e10  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract In our recent paper on how artificial light at night (ALAN) affects within-individual changes in physiology, we used a unique experimental setup of colored LED lights to show effects on nighttime activity levels and physiology in free-living great tits, Parus major (Ouyang et al., 2017). Raap et al's response, entitled: “Rigorous field experiments are essential to understand the genuine severity of light pollution and to identify possible solutions” lists issues with our analyses (Raap et al., 2017). Rather than go into a detailed response, we use this forum to address the major critiques by answering the bigger question of what types of rigorous field experiments are needed to evaluate ALAN's impact. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address P.O. box 50, 6700 AB, Wageningen, Gelderland Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition (up)  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28886232 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1721  
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Author Yoshinaka, K.; Yamaguchi, A.; Matsumura, R.; Node, K.; Tokuda, I.; Akashi, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of different light-dark schedules on estrous cycle in mice, and implications for mitigating the adverse impact of night work Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Genes to Cells : Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms Abbreviated Journal Genes Cells  
  Volume 22 Issue 10 Pages 876-884  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Approximately 20% of workers in developed countries are involved in night work. Nevertheless, many studies have strongly suggested that night-work-induced chronic circadian misalignment increases the risk of a diverse range of health problems. Although a relation between night work and irregular menstrual cycles has been indicated epidemiologically, a direct causal link remains elusive. Here, we report that repetitive reversal of light-dark (LD) cycles triggers irregular estrous cycles in mice. The findings showed that the estrous cycle remained irregular for more than four weeks after the mice were returned to regular LD cycles. Importantly, the magnitude of the negative impact of reversed LD cycles on the estrous cycle, or more specifically the decreased number of normal estrous cycles during the observation period, was dependent on the difference in the frequency of LD reversal. Presently, no clear solution to prevent night-work-mediated menstrual abnormalities is available, and reducing night work in modern society is difficult. Our findings indicate that optimizing work schedules could significantly prevent menstrual problems without reducing total night-work time.  
  Address The Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, 753-8511, Japan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition (up)  
  ISSN 1356-9597 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28884885 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1722  
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Author Souman, J.L.; Tinga, A.M.; Te Pas, S.F.; van Ee, R.; Vlaskamp, B.N.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acute alerting effects of light: a systematic literature review Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 337 Issue Pages 228-239  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Periodic, well timed exposure to light is important for our health and wellbeing. Light, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum, is thought to affect alertness both indirectly, by modifying circadian rhythms, and directly, giving rise to acute effects. We performed a systematic review of empirical studies on direct, acute effects of light on alertness to evaluate the reliability of these effects and to assess to what extent they depend on other factors, such as time of day, exposure duration and sleep pressure. In total, we identified 74 studies in which either light intensity, spectral distribution, or both were manipulated, and the effects on behavioral measures of alertness were evaluated, either subjectively or measured in performance tasks. The results show that increasing the intensity or the color temperature of polychromatic white light in general has been found to increase subjective ratings of alertness, though a substantial proportion of these studies failed to find significant effects. There is little evidence in the literature that these subjective alerting effects of light also translate into improvements on performance measures of alertness. For monochromatic or narrowband light exposure, some studies have shown improvement in reaction time tasks with exposure to blue light, but generally this was not accompanied by changes in subjective alertness. Thus, the alerting effects of light are far less clear than often suggested. We suggest that in future studies more attention should be paid to other factors that may influence the effects of light, such as chronotype, circadian phase, homeostatic state and prior light history.  
  Address Philips Research (Department Brain, Behavior & Cognition), Eindhoven, The Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition (up)  
  ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28912014 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1727  
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Author Willis, G.L.; Freelance, C.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of directed photic stimulation of the pineal on experimental Parkinson's disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav  
  Volume 182 Issue Pages 1-9  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The role of the circadian system in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. This has emerged from recent studies demonstrating an altered response of PD patients to treatment in relation to the phase of the light/dark cycle and from other work defining the functional significance of melanocytes in PD: a cell type that the nigro-striatal dopamine (NSD) system and circadian system both contain. The present study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of the pineal, as the final common pathway of the circadian system, to light delivered directly to the pineal via surgical implantation of LEDs. Direct photic stimulation of the pineal altered the course of experimental PD while anatomical controls receiving stimulation of the frontal cortex exhibited a negative impact on the course of recovery of these animals. These effects were closely linked to the phase of the light/dark cycle. The present results suggest that while pineal photoreceptors are regarded as vestigial, functional photo-reactivity of the pineal remains. It is inferred that melanocytes are the active cells responsible for the observed effect since they remain functionally intact in mammalian pineal even though pineal photoreceptors are functionally inert. Although the stimuli applied in the present study may be regarded as artificial this study demonstrates that brain parenchyma remains differentially reactive to direct light exposure and presents a novel mechanism in circadian structures that needs to be explored.  
  Address The Bronowski Institute of Behavioural Neuroscience, Coliban Medical Centre, 19 Jennings Street, Kyneton, Victoria 3444, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition (up)  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28919247 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1732  
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